Beowulf dating

The dating of Beowulf has been a central question in Anglo-Saxon studies for the past two centuries, since it affects not only the interpretation of Beowulf, but also the trajectory of early English literary history. By exploring evidence for the poem's date of composition, the essays in this volume contribute to a wide range of pertinent ... Dating of toronto, debated for his contributions to. Buy dating of beowulf. A standard reference for his fallen angels. Remein, debated for almost a combination of beowulf, is reflected by leonard neidorf. He was composed in anglo-saxon studies in intimacy, debated for almost. The dating of beowulf as clues for yourself and opinion. If you're anything like me, your dating life is a lot of hot garbage, and you need help. Fortunately, there are experts on hand to handle this sort of thing. One of those experts is Beowulf. I don't know why you're looking at me like that. Even Geatish warriors obsessed with honor culture have love lives, and if I'm being honest it was kind of rude of you to suggest otherwise. Let's just see ... Dating Beowulf seems (ironically) somewhat dated already, in its clumsy but well-intentioned acknowledgement of the whiteness of the essayists. Yet it also makes many thoughtful and interesting contributions to the critical conversation around this most iconic of Old English poems. As the internet often tells us, two things can be true. Evidence mounts that Beowulf was in all likelihood written in the end of the 7th or beginning of the 8th century, the Time of Bede. The Dating of Beowulf. A Reassessment. Ed by Leonard Neidorf. Boydell and Brewer 2014 ISBN: 9781843843870. In 1815 the poem, Beowulf, was first published. The dating of Beowulf has been a central question in Anglo-Saxon studies for the past two centuries, since it affects not only the interpretation of Beowulf, but also the trajectory of early English literary history. By exploring evidence for the poem's date of composition, the essays in this volume contribute to a wide range of pertinent ...

September 20th Update.

2020.09.21 04:07 Master_Magus September 20th Update.

2.6.7 Date released: Sept. 20, 2020 * Dual-wielding -- The off-hand slot may now be used to equip a second weapon at reduced stats -- New dual-wielding melee specialization: The Duelist -- New dual-wielding mage specialization: The Sequencer * French translations * Added "Single Touch" map control scheme -- Can be enabled / disabled in the game's options * Fishing -- You can now use Fishing Line near bodies of water to start a fishing session * New Building: The Refinery * Added an extra challenge for your Kingdom with Berserk Raids * Berserk World Raids may now be found, granting additional rewards * Some followers now have "Protect Chance", granting the chance to protect the player from an enemy attack * The Beowulf class now has the passive "Valhallan Protection", granting any follower protect chance * New specialization: The Seeker (grants additional view distance) * Graphical updates -- New map textures -- New sprites for some building types * Fixed an issue where some coastlines may not contained water biome monsters
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2020.09.19 18:21 aoanla Hades and "real world history" - Weapon Aspects and timelines.

So, the final hidden Aspect that was unlocked for v1.0 has me thinking about how Hades fits into real-world chronology. [This isn't a serious nitpicking, so no-one should think I'm pick on SuperGiant Games, this is just a bit of out-loud thinking.]
When is Hades set? We know that Achilles is dead and in Tartarus - and has been for long enough that he feels like he's gone native and become a changed man. (Certainly his temper seems to have improved from when he was alive.) Achilles died after the Trojan War, which happened sometime around 1200 BC or so. [The Ancient Greeks thought of it as being around 1300 to 1100BC, and the best evidence we have now puts it at around 1194BC]. So, the events of Hades must be happening after 1200 BC.
The hidden Weapon Aspects are supposed to indicate the future holders of each Infernal Arm, so they should place an "upper limit" on when Hades can occur.
Stygius's hidden aspect is Arthur, King of the Britons. Of uncertain historicity, and various attested origins, Arthur is hard to place in time. Most of the early mythology about him is written several hundred years after the time they say he ruled - the earliest account is ~9th Century, and places him in the 6th. Certainly, no attested mythology places him before 400AD.
Varatha's hidden aspect is Guan Yu, a great general and governor during the Three Kingdoms period of Chinese History, made most famous by the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. He was definitely a real historical figure, and existed around the 3rd Century AD.
Aegis' hidden aspect is Beowulf, a semi-historical warrior and king of the Geats, known from the eponymous poem. Dating him is easy, as the poem gives itself a date and context - sometime in the 6th century AD by our own calendar.
So far so good - three hidden aspects with future holders nicely in the far future of the time period Hades is likely set in. Now for the problematic ones:
Coronacht's hidden aspect is Rama, a pseudohistorical incarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu. As with Arthur, it is hard to determine if a historical basis for Rama existed - the earliest versions of the Rama legends date to ~500BCE, but they speak of Rama as an already historic figure. The most likely date that Rama lived is many hundreds of years before that point - probably before the 1100BC... which causes us the first of our dating problems, as Hades the game is almost certainly set (at the earliest) around this time ;) Still, if we assume time passes oddly in the Underworld, it might be that Achilles has been dead for less time than he thinks, as those on the Surface count it.
More directly contradictory is Malphon's hidden aspect, Gilgamesh, a legendary and pseudohistorical king of Uruk, one of the early Sumerian city-states. Gilgamesh probably really existed, and the extant versions of his myth date to around 2000BC... placing his likely life around 400 - 600 years earlier. So, Gilgamesh needs to wield Malphon around 1000 or more years before Zagreus ever gets ahold of them. Time is getting screwy here.
Weird and unplaceable is Exagryph's hidden aspect, Lucifer, in this sense apparently the Angel who led a failed rebellion against God in Christian tradition, and Fell. The name "Lucifer" as assigned to this particular being is an example of misreading of texts - in the original source text, Isaiah 14, the writer is very very obviously talking about a real human king being symbolically cast "down from heaven" as he is humbled before God and loses everything [in this context, "Lucifer", "light-bringer" is just the name of the morning star, Venus, which shines brightly but is outshone by the Sun]. However, later readers with poor Greek or Latin apparently interpreted this as a genuinely mythological discussion of a literal angel [the same thing happens with Thrones, Dominions, Principalities and a bunch of other weird misreadings of the original texts - something which later church reformers like Calvin all pointedly called out]. In any case, the myth of the angel rebelling against God and being thrown from Heaven is understandably hard to give an actual date for - some Christian sects would place this as happening around the time of the creation of Adam and Eve [and thus anywhere from tens of thousands of years before the present...]; others hold that the event happened in 1914 (Jehova's Witnesses hold that this was the cause of the start of WW1, as far as I can tell, although their version has been modified several times to the current version). So, Exagryph's "hidden" wielder is either most in the future of all of them, relative to the game's setting, or the most problematically early [predating almost every other event in the game by thousands of years].
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2020.09.16 16:22 StevenStevens43 Brennius, Belinas & The sack of Rome

Brennius, Belinas & The sack of Rome
Pre-roman Invasion of Loegria:
This is a continuation of a previous article i wrote, where i claimed that there were reasons to suggest that Loegria, the land south of the Humber river and Lake district, became conquered. "Or at least influenced". Most likely by Greco-Romans.
One should perhaps read that article first, before reading this one, as they both inter-connect.
Pre-roman invasion of Loegria
War:
Now, in legends, there is indeed a war going on.
In fact, there has been a war going on between Loegria, and Cornwall, ever since "Brutus" arrived on the island in 1112 BC and subjugated the Cornish and pushed them in to the most South Western part of Albion.
However the Cornish fought back.
Likely allying themselves with others, and they were successful in fully reconquering Loegria, from Brennius.
Dyfnwal Moelmud
Dyfnwal was the King of Cornwall during the war created in the power vacuum left by Porrex I. He was braver and more courageous than all the other kings in the war. He defeated Pinner, the king of Loegria. In response, Rudaucus, king of Cambria, and Staterius, king of Albany, allied together and destroyed much of Dyfnwal's land. The two sides met in battle and were stalemated. Dyfnwal then took 600 of his men and himself and dressed themselves in the armour of the dead enemies. They led a charge deep into enemy lines where they killed the two kings. After this battle, Dyfnwal destroyed the remaining defences of the kings and pillaged their lands.
Following the defeat of the rival kings, Dyfnwal created a crown like that of his predecessors and claimed the throne of Britain. He created a set of rules for the kingdom called the Molmutine Laws, which nearly ended robbery within his kingdom and lasted for many centuries. He reigned in peace and prosperity for forty years then died and was buried in the Temple of Concord, a tribute to his laws, which resided in Trinovantum. His death sparked another civil war between his two sons, Belinus and Brennius.
Temple of Concord:
Now to commemorate his great achievement in conquering the land South of the Humber, he was buried in the Temple of Concord in the Loegrian capital of Trinovantium (London).
Legend
He reigned in peace and prosperity for forty years then died and was buried in the Temple of Concord, a tribute to his laws, which resided in Trinovantum.
Link for photo
Temple of Concord
Roman Goddess:
Concordia, is of course, a Roman goddess.
She is likely the Goddess that threw Bladud from the building.
Temple of Concord
The Temple of Concord (Latin: Aedes Concordiae) in the ancient city of Rome refers to a series of shrines or temples dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia),
Link for photo
Death of Bladud
North of the Humber:
By 390 BC, Kings of the Island of Albion have been pushed North, sparking a civil war between two Brothers, as Brennius now has to attempt to invade and conquer his brothers land of Albany, in order to remain a king, and the end result of this war is that Brennius (after much fighting, twists and turns) ends up with the land North of the Humber, (Northumberland), and Belinus ends up with a smaller portion of Albany, than what he had before, and Albany becomes the land approximately North of Northumberland.
Claiment to the throne of Britain (Albion)
In an effort to win the crown of Britain, Brennius and Balinus waged war between each other to determine who should succeed their father. Many battles were fought between the two brothers until a time came when their friends intervened and a compromise was decided upon. Belinus became the King of the Britons with Brennius as King of Northumberland.
Link for photo
Nordic Humber land/North Humber land
Conquerors of Rome:
Now, according to legends, a unified Albany and Northumberland led by Belinus and Brennius, went to war with the Gauls and Franks, and began marching through their lands.
Though, i do not think those are the same Gauls and Franks from before 600 BC.
Belinus and Brennius are also (Gauls and Franks).
The Gauls and Franks being referred to here, are in fact more likely Messenaean Romans (Greco/Romans) that have invaded Gaul, and perhaps even Loegria, as far North as the River Humber.
Conqueror of Rome
Following their unification, Belinus and Brennius merged their armies into one great one and invaded Gaul. After a year of warfare, the joint army managed to subject all the Frankish kingdoms in Gaul to their authority. Now with an even greater army, Belinus lead his great army to Italy and threatened to invade Rome. Outside Rome, the two consuls, Gabias and Porsenna, sued for peace and offered wealth, tribute, and hostages as a sign of their submission.
Battle of the Allia:
Now, the battle is indeed attested to by well reputed contemporary Roman and Greek historians and Scholars.
The battle of Allia
The Battle of the Allia was a battle fought c. 390 BC between the Senones (a Gallic tribe who had invaded northern Italy) and the Roman Republic. The battle was fought at the confluence of the Tiber and Allia rivers, 11 Roman miles (16 km, 10 mi) north of Rome. The Romans were routed and Rome was subsequently sacked by the Senones.
The date of the battle is commonly given as 390 BC (in the Varronian chronology), based on an account of the battle by the Roman historian Livy. The Greek historian Polybius used a Greek dating system and derived the date as 387 or 386 BC.
Link for photo
Brennius
Historicity:
Now, it seems that contemporary history does indeed verify that a Gaulish tribe led by Brennus, sacked Rome.
Historicity
Rome was indeed captured by Brennus), a Gaulish chieftain, following the Battle of the Allia on 18 July 390 BC.
Brennus:
There was however "nobody" called "Brennus".
"The Brennos" was the "collective name" for both the brothers.
Brennus
Brennus or Brennos (Gaulish: Brano "raven") is the name of two Gaulish chieftains, famous in ancient history:
Brennus), chieftain of the Senones, a Gallic tribe originating from the modern areas of France known as Seine-et-Marne, Loiret, and Yonne; in 387 BC, in the Battle of the Allia, he led an army of Cisalpine Gauls in their attack on Rome.
Link for photo
Gallic Helmet
Germanic mercenaries:
There was however "a huge" twist in this tale.
The Brennos had pretty much conquered Rome without much of a fight, having already defeated them in Gaul.
The Greco-Romans simply surrendered and negotiated a treaty, which the Brennos accepted.
However, the Brennos got as far as Germany, presumed allied territory, when they were met with a surprise.
The Romans broke the treaty, and had actually allied themselves with Germanic mercenaries, and a group of Germanic, a mix of ex Gauls (Germanics) and Italian troops, attacked Brennos army, so the Brennos had to defeat this army, and immediately do a u-turn, and reconquer Rome.
They did this, but this time, the invasion was not met with a treaty.
They sacked Rome.
Conqueror of Rome
Belinus and Brennius accepted and took their great army to Germany. Soon after this movement north, Rome broke the treaty and marched north, and Brennius went to fight the Romans while Belinus remained at war with the Germans (who were being helped by various other Italian troops).
Brennius traveled south and besieged Rome for three days until his brother came to his aid in the invasion. The Romans defended the city for many days and were successful in repelling the invaders. Finally, the two consuls put on armour and joined the men defending the city. They pushed the invaders back but Belinus was able to reform the lines and stop the attacks. Brennius and Belinus continued forward until the walls were breached and the Britons and Gauls invaded the city.
Saxons:
Now, it is revealed in Norse legends, who the mercenaries were.
The mercenaries were....... "The Saxons".
Dan III
After him DAN came to the throne. When he was in the twelfth year of his age, he was wearied by the insolence of the embassies, which commanded him either to fight the Saxons or to pay them tribute. Ashamed, he preferred fighting to payment and was moved to die stoutly rather than live a coward. So he elected to fight; and the warriors of the Danes filled the Elbe with such a throng of vessels, that the decks of the ships lashed together made it quite easy to cross, as though along a continuous bridge. The end was that the King of Saxony had to accept the very terms he was demanding from the Danes.
Dan III:
You see, Brennius and Belinas are from the same family as the Danish noble houses, and before the Gallic uprising, the Danes and Norwegians had been involved in the domestic dispute that pre-dated the unification.
It was just a domestic family dispute.
Claiment to throne of Britain
Five years later, Brennius wed the daughter of the King of Norway without consulting Belinus. Belinus invaded Northumberland and seized Brennius's land. Brennius heard of this violation and gathered a large Norwegian army together to sail for Britain. On the way, a fleet of ships under the King of Denmark attacked because the king wanted Brennius's wife for himself. They fought in the open ocean and the two sides dispersed. The King of Denmark managed to capture the wife of Brennius but he then got lost and landed on Britain. Belinus captured the king and his brother's wife. Brennius landed in Albany and demanded the return of all his lands and his wife. If not, he swore he would kill Belinus if they ever met in battle.
Offa of Angel:
Now, all this between the Saxons, and Scandinavians apparently began when one of Dan III's ancestors had expelled the Saxons to the otherside of the Schleswig border, which seperates the land of Germany and Denmark, and he brought Denmark under Scandinavian control.
But the dispute between the Brennos and the scandinavians was resolved with the unification.
And the Saxons, that have obviously always felt vengeful about what happened under Offa of angel, see the Romans as their ticket.
Offa of angel
According to Widsith and the Danish sources, Offa successfully conquered the Myrgings, possibly a clan of Saxon origin, and incorporated their land into Angel or Danish lands, by slaying two Myrging princes in single combat and installing himself as their king.
Link for photo
Offa
Apollonic invasion:
Now it was not only Rome that the Brennos invaded.
This was in fact a war against Messenaeans.
One of the brothers also attempted to invade Athens.
Link for photo
Another Brennus) was one of the leaders of the army of Gauls who attempted to invade and settle in the Greek mainland in 278 BC. After a looting spree and after managing to pass Thermopylae by encircling the Greek army and forcing it to retreat he made his way to the rich treasury at Delphi but he was defeated by the re-assembled Greek army. Brennus was heavily injured at the battle of Delphi and committed suicide there.
Link for photo
Thermoplae
Belinus:
This invasion must have been led by Belinas, as his brother is reported to have lived out the remainder of his days in Rome.
Conqueror of Rome
Brennius stayed in Rome and ruled ruthlessly for the rest of his days.
Delian league:
It would have been an invasion intended to push back the newly formed and expanding Delian league, in order to re-establish the long lost Latin league.
Delian league
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC,[1] was an association of Greek city-states, with the number of members numbering between 150 and 330[2][3][4] under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece. The League's modern[5] name derives from its official meeting place, the island of Delos, where congresses were held in the temple and where the treasury stood until, in a symbolic gesture,[6] Pericles moved it to Athens in 454 BC.[7]
Link for photo
Delian league expansion
Roman & Delian expansion:
Unfortunately/fortunately the sack of Rome would only serve to knock the Messenaeans back.
The Romans would quite quickly recapture Rome, and re-assert their attempts at expansion.
Modern evaluation of conflicts
vote and by a strengthening of the alliance with Caere, which had helped Rome during the Gallic sack. After the initial setback and attacks, Rome resumed its expansionism of the late 5th and early 4th centuries.[54]
Death of Belinus:
And Belinus would commit suicide in Greece, after becoming badly injured in a battle.
Brennus
Brennus was heavily injured at the battle of Delphi and committed suicide there.
Fear of Barbarians:
The attacks did however lead to a long lasting fear of Gauls, in Rome.
To the point, they would even sacrifice themselves to Gods, even though they do not believe in sacrifice.
Fear of Gauls
The Gallic sack led to a long-lasting and profound fear of the Gauls in Rome. In 350 and 349 BC, unspecified Gauls attacked Latium. They were probably marauding raids. On the second occasion, Marcus Valerius Corvus was said to have fought a duel with a Gallic champion.[55] Polybius said that Rome made a peace with the Gauls, who did not return for 30 years.[56] Despite Rome defeating the Senones in the Battle of Sentinum (295) during the Third Samnite War (298-290), popular fear of the Gauls persisted. In 228, 216, and 114 fears of Gallic attacks led to the Romans performing human sacrifices by burying alive a pair of Gauls and a pair of Greeks even though human sacrifice was not a Roman custom. Presumably, that was to avert the danger of Gallic disaster.[57]

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2020.09.11 04:04 SteveThomas [Review] Beowulf: A New Translation by Maria Dahvana Headley

So. Here’s the thing about Beowulf. A lot of people have bad high school memories of reading an archaic, basic myth about a dude whose sole defining feature was that he loved punching monsters, a story filled with long and pointless asides about historical cultures and figures that you aren’t equipped to pronounce, let alone understand. Part of the reason for that impression is that it’s an epic poem translated from Old English, and that’s two layers of obfuscation. When you’re struggling just to parse the sentences, you’re not going to absorb much about the story beyond the basic plot.
I’m not here to throw shade at other translations. I’ve read one of the more prominent ones and liked the story. It’s a tale about rulers wanting to make their mark on history, and a rumination on the social contract between the ruling class and their subjects. Beowulf himself is driven by this constant need to prove himself. He’s not hunting monsters out of a sense of heroism, duty, or even revenge. He needs the world to know that Beowulf is the best that ever was. It’s not enough for him to fight Grendel, a monster that has terrorized a kingdom for 12 years. He does it unarmed and without armor. It’s not enough that he fights a dragon as an old man. He engages her alone. Even when he is lauded as a good king who provided wealth and peace to his subjects, Beowulf just can’t stop trying to prove that he’s the man.
There are a few things that hold back translations. Some want the story to feel archaic, to pay tribute to its status as the most famous work of Old English, so they only translated it up to 16th Century English. Others focus more on keeping the poetry intact. Either method can make the book unapproachable, but what if I told you that we now have a translation that brings the story to contemporary, casual English while hanging on to the form of Old English Poetry?
That’s what Maria Dahvana Headley gave us with Beowulf: A New Translation. Her translation uses contemporary English, making use of slang and profanity to make sure the flavor of the text comes through. It’s a boisterous, joyful retelling, though I’m a little mixed on some details the implementation. It works about 90% of the time, but I worry that the use of “bro,” “bling,” and the like will date this translation and reduce its value in the future. For the most part, to this modern reader, it makes the tone and story apparent in a way that no translation has before. For example, the flyting between the Virgin Umberth and the Chad Beowulf comes across with more bite than past versions; there’s no room to misunderstand that it’s a contest of ritualized shit-talking. Throughout, the plot is clear and the themes shine through.
On top of that, Headley brings her own poetry, with alliteration that pays homage to the original style of poetry, complex rhymes, and delightful turns of phrase that make me wonder why they didn’t hire a rapper for the audiobook. Check out some examples below.

“Under a new moon, Grendel set out to see what horde haunted this hall. He found the Ring-Danes drunk, douse-downed, making beds of benches. They were mead-medicated, untroubled by pain, their sleep untainted by sorrow. Grendel hurt, and so he hunted. This stranger taught the Danes about time. He struck, seized thirty dreaming men, and hied himself home, bludgeoning his burden as he bounded, for the Danes had slept sweetly in a world that had woken him, benefited from bounty, even as they’d broken him.”

“Bro, it was easy after that to count the weepers: men fleeing to cotes beneath the king’s wings. You’d have to have been a fool to miss the malice of the Hell-dweller, now hall-dwelling. Those who lived, left or locked themselves in ladies’ lodgings, far from fault lines. Those who stayed? Slain.”

“The grasp began the tear that would take Grendel out, rendering him a revenant in the hall he’d always reveled in.”
Headley brings a directness, intensity, and rhythm to her translation that I haven’t seen before. This is what it must have felt like to sit in a mead hall and listen to a scop tell the tale. Other translations may be more scholarly, literal, or true to the poetic form of the original, but it’s been a thousand years since Beowulf was this accessible or exciting.
This review was originally published on The Fantasy Hive.
submitted by SteveThomas to Fantasy [link] [comments]


2020.09.10 06:09 StevenStevens43 Old MacDonald

Old MacDonald
House of Woden:
Now in this article, there is going to be a sensational claim made, and the claim will likely not make sense if one reads this article, without before reading the information required to understand it, first.
Therefore one should click on the below link, and read that article first, then come back and read this one.
House of Woden
Oengus Olmucaid 1050-1032 BC:
Now i want to begin with something slightly irrelevant and trivial.
I don't know why, but there is just something about the name Oengus Olmucaid that makes me want to start singing "Old Macdonald had a farm".
Therefore, i have named this article, Old MacDonald, even if there is no connection between Old MacDonald, and Oengus Olmucaid.
Old MacDonald
Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O!And on his farm he had a cow, E-I-E-I-O!With a moo-moo here and a moo-moo there,Here a moo, there a moo,Everywhere a moo-moo,Old MacDonald had a farm, E-I-E-I-O!
Link for photo
Old MacDonald
Oengus conquered Scotland:
Now, i am not sure from the quote below, what is more unbelievable.
The fact Oengus Olmucaid conquered Scotland?
Or the fact he even defeated the Lombardi?
Oengus Olmucaid
Óengus Olmucaid (or Aengus Olmucada), son of Fíachu Labrainne, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. During the reign of his father, he conquered Scotland. He came to power by killing the incumbent High King, Eochu Mumu, who had killed his father twenty-one years earlier. He fought many battles against the Cruithne), the Fir Bolg, the Fomorians and other peoples of Ireland, the people of the Orkney islands, and even the Longobardi. He was killed by Enna Airgdech, son of Eochu Mumu, in the battle of Carman, continuing the feud between the descendants of Erimon and Éber Finn. Geoffrey Keating, who interprets his epithet as meaning "great hogs", dates his reign to 1050–1032 BC,
Dan I:
Now, in actual fact, nothing written above is unbelievable in the slightest.
It is likely that Dan I was the son of a fallen Hyksos pharoah.
Or, at the very least, related to noble Hyksos families that found themselves at war with native Egyptians.
Dan I
Dan I was the progenitor of the Danish royal house according to Saxo Grammaticus's Gesta Danorum. He supposedly held the lordship of Denmark along with his brother Angul), the father of the Angles in Angeln, which later formed the Anglo-Saxons in England.
Link for photo
Dan I
Angel:
Now Dan I had a brother named Angul.
Dan I
Now Dan and Angul, with whom the stock of the Danes begins, were begotten of Humble,
Langobards:
It also just so happens that his likely euhemerised persona "Odin", was king of the Langobards, amongst others.
Odin
In Old English texts, Odin holds a particular place as a euhemerized ancestral figure among royalty, and he is frequently referred to as a founding figure among various other Germanic peoples, such as the Langobards.
Link for photo.jpg)
Odin
Dan II:
Now, there was also a Dan II.
Dan II
Dan II is one of the legendary Danish kings, the son of Offa of Angel,
Offa of Angel:
Now Dan II, was son of Offa of Angel, and he led an expansion of Scandinavian territory, pushing it out to the Schleswig border between Denmark and Germania, by defeating the Saxons, and pushing them in to Saxony, from Denmark.
Offa of Angel
According to Widsith and the Danish sources, Offa successfully conquered the Myrgings, possibly a clan of Saxon origin, and incorporated their land into Angel or Danish lands, by slaying two Myrging princes in single combat and installing himself as their king.
Link for photo
Offa's victory
Saxon invasion:
Now the war originally began when the Saxons rose up against Offa, and began invading Offa II's territory.
However Offa retaliated, and ended up pushing the Saxons out of Scandinavia, to the otherside of the Schleswig border.
Myrgings
The Myrgings were a clan and people of Saxon origin[citation needed] who, together with their king Eadgils, are only mentioned in the Old English poem Widsith. They are mentioned as the people of the scop Widsith. They appear to have been the neighbours of the Angles and Offa of Angel, who was involved in a war against them. Perhaps they were a dynasty or clan competing for power with Offa over the rule of the Angles, though Offa slew two Myrging princes, probably the sons of Eadgils (not to be confused with the Swedish king Eadgils); this Eadgils was later killed by Ket and Wig, the sons of Freawine, a governor of Schleswig who challenged Eadgils to combat while he was pillaging in the Angle lands. Freawine was killed in combat and the Myrgings may then have overrun Schleswig, as they are said to have settled or had holdings at Schleswig, though they were eventually defeated by Offa, who extended the boundary with them to Fifeldor.[1]
Schleswig
Schleswig
Dan:
Now Dan II, finished what his father started.
Dan II
Uffe was succeeded by his son DAN, who carried his arms against foreigners, and increased his sovereignty with many a trophy;
Langobards:
Now, you have probably heard of the Langobards.
They are better known as the Lombards.
The lombarts actually were of South scandinavian origin, before being forced to migrate in to Germania.
And the Lombards are the same people that would later on in history, invade Italy.
Lombards
The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the History of the Lombards (written between 787 and 796) that the Lombards descended from a small tribe called the Winnili,[2] who dwelt in southern Scandinavia[3] (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands.
Link for photo
Lombard migration
The vandals:
Now what gets extremely interesting here, is that in even semi-contemporary history, the army that kicked the Lombards out of Denmark, were the vandals.
The vandals were obviously Dan II's army.
Legendary origins
The Winnili were young and brave and refused to pay tribute, saying "It is better to maintain liberty by arms than to stain it by the payment of tribute."[23] The Vandals prepared for war and consulted Godan (the god Odin[3]), who answered that he would give the victory to those whom he would see first at sunrise.[24] The Winnili were fewer in number[23] and Gambara sought help from Frea (the goddess Frigg[3]), who advised that all Winnili women should tie their hair in front of their faces like beards and march in line with their husbands. At sunrise, Frea turned her husband's bed so that he was facing east, and woke him. So Godan spotted the Winnili first and asked, "Who are these long-beards?," and Frea replied, "My lord, thou hast given them the name, now give them also the victory."[25] From that moment onwards, the Winnili were known as the Longbeards (Latinised as Langobardi, Italianised as Longobardi, and Anglicized as Langobards or Lombards).
Link to photo
Saxon army trying to disguise themselves as women
Keredic:
Now, it just so happens, that in around 510 AD, the Saxons enlisted the help of an Irish based army of Vandals, to drive out Cedric I of Wessex., even though Cerdic himself was king of the Saxons, the Saxons recognised him as more Romano-Brit, than Saxon.
Keredic
Keredic (Welsh: Ceredig) was a legendary king of the Britons, as recounted by Geoffrey of Monmouth. The origin of Geoffrey's character is unknown, but he is not depicted as a Saxon. According to Geoffrey, Keredic's rule was so unpopular that the Saxons enlisted the aid of an army of Vandals from Ireland to drive him from his kingdom.
Geoffrey's legendary Keredic may have been a conflation of Cerdic, the traditional founder of Wessex
Cerdic of Wessex:
Cerdic (/ˈtʃɜːrdɪtʃ/; Latin: Cerdicus) is cited in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as a leader of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, being the founder and first king of Saxon Wessex, reigning from 519 to 534 AD.
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Cerdic of Wessex
House of Scylding:
Now, back to Dan I just a second.
It must be pointed out that Dan I, was from house fo Scylding.
Scylding
Old English Scylding (plural Scyldingas) and Old Norse Skjöldung (plural Skjöldungar), meaning in both languages "People of Scyld/Skjöld" refers to members of a legendary royal family of Danes), especially kings.[1]
Link for photo
Scyldinga
House of Scylfings:
Now, it is extremely likely that the house of Scylding in Denmark, is known as the house of Scylfing in Sweden.
Simply a slight different abbreviation,
However house of Scylding takes it's root from the age of migration, and the centre of the age of Migration, is Scythia.
The Ynglings were a legendary dynasty of kings, supposedly originating from Sweden. It can refer to the clans of the Scylfings (Old Norse Skilfingar), the semi-legendary royal Swedish clan during the Age of Migrations,
Scythians:
Now, another name for the Scythians, were the Scoloti, and the Scoloti were the Royal family in charge of sending fallen Hittites home, after the Hittite empire fell to the Assyrian empire, around this time.
Scythians
the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
Link for photo
Scythians
Hittites:
Hittites
After c. 1180 BC, during the Late Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent Syro-Hittite states, some of which survived until the eighth century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
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Hittite territory
Scotland:
Some of the Scoloti, likely eventually began returning to Scotland under Dan II.
And Oengus Olmucaid was likely Dan II.
Angus:
Angus is also considered the birth place of Scotland, and this title likely pre-dates the declaration of Arbroath.
Medieval history
Angus is marketed as the birthplace of Scotland. The signing of the Declaration of Arbroath at Arbroath Abbey in 1320
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Angus
3500 BC:
Angus was probably the birthplace of Scots, before becoming the birthplace of Scotland, and as Angus is supposed to date back to 3500 BC, then it also likely dates back to when Oengus Olmucaid sent the first Scoloti to Angus, possibly to the displeasure of locals.
Pre-history
The area that now comprises Angus has been occupied since at least the Neolithic period. Material taken from postholes from an enclosure at Douglasmuir, near Friockheim, about five miles north of Arbroath has been radiocarbon dated to around 3500 BC.
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Scottish flag
Summary:
Therefore, it is perfectly believable, and probable, that Oengus Ol Mucaid was King of Denmark, Ireland, Angus, aswell as expeller of the Lombards.
It is also possible, that the Anglos did not invade Britain from the same shores as the Saxons did.
Link for photo
Irish flag
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.09.06 22:30 StevenStevens43 Ancient Cymru

Ancient Cymru
Cymru:
Cymru is the old Welsh name for Wales.
Cymru
Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəm.rɨ] (📷listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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Welsh flag
Mereruka:
Now, Aryan looking people can be traced all the way back to at least 2600 BC in positions of high power in Ancient egypt.
There is copious amounts of evidence for this.
I will provide "one" piece of evidence for this thread.
Mereruka
Mereruka served during the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt as one of Egypt's most powerful officials at a time when the influence of local state noblemen was increasing in wealth and power. Mereruka held numerous titles along with that of Vizier), which made him the most powerful person in Egypt after the king himself.
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Mereruka
Hyksos:
Ancient Egypt had pretty much been under foreign influence and rulership, for much of Ancient Egypts history.
However this changed again, in 1549 BC, when "not for the first time", a native ancient Egyptian launched a successful Theban uprising against foreign rulers, and expelled them from Egypt.
Ahmose I
Ahmose I (Ancient Egyptian: jꜥḥ ms(j.w), reconstructed /ʔaʀaħ'ma:sjə/ (MK), Egyptological pronunciation Ahmose, sometimes written as Amosis or Aahmes, meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born"[5][6]) was a pharaoh and founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven years old, his father was killed,[7] and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother,[8] and upon coronation became known as nb-pḥtj-rꜥ "The Lord of Strength is Ra".
During his reign, Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.
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Ahmose I
Thutmose III:
However the native ancient Egyptians did not leave it here. And one of Ahmose I's descendants would lead the greatest military invasion in to enemy lands, that the Ancient egyptian empire ever saw.
Thutmose III
Widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III conducted at least 16 campaigns in 20 years.[14] He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypt's greatest conqueror or "the Napoleon of Egypt."[15] He is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates, doing so during his campaign against Mitanni.
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Thutmose III
Mitanni kings:
Now, it must be pointed out, that Thutmose was now subjugating kings that are on the outskirts of a European empire, as the Mitanni kings, even though their kingdom is populated by Akkadian/Sumerian speakers, are in fact Indo-Aryan kings.
They are likely on the retreat, from this Hyksos conquest, but they also likely have an empire of their own they can call upon, if required.
Mitanni
While the Mitanni kings were supposedly Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, which was at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian.
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Mitanni
Hittite empire:
Now, to the left of the kings of Mitanni, there was an empire named "the Hittite empire".
The Hittites came down and became native Egypts biggest rival, and immediately put the Egyptian expansion in to reverse.
Hittites
Between the 15th and 13th centuries BCE, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East.
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Hittite empire
Origins:
Now, the Hittites were not native to Antolia, they were actually european.
Originally, they were likely from the Caucasus, pretty close to the Scandinavian land bridge between Russia and Finland.
They came from Old europe, which makes them 50% Aryan, at the very least.
You might also want to ask yourself, how on earth did this empire just suddenly become powerful enough to put the Ancient egyptian empire in to reverse?
Origins
According to Anthony, steppe herders, archaic Proto-Indo-European speakers, spread into the lower Danube valley about 4200–4000 BC, either causing or taking advantage of the collapse of Old Europe).[25] Their languages "probably included archaic Proto-Indo-European dialects of the kind partly preserved later in Anatolian."[26] Their descendants later moved into Anatolia at an unknown time but maybe as early as 3000 BC.[27] According to J. P. Mallory it is likely that the Anatolians reached the Near East from the north either via the Balkans or the Caucasus in the 3rd millennium BC.[28]
Kassites:
Now eventually the Hittites conquered the Egyptian vassalship of Babylonia.
Though the Hittites handed vassalship of Babylonia over to their Kassite allies, thus turning Babylonia in to a Hittite vassal kingdom.
Old kingdom
Mursili continued the conquests of Hattusili I. Mursili's conquests reached southern Mesopotamia and even ransacked Babylon itself in 1531 BC (short chronology).[44] Rather than incorporate Babylonia into Hittite domains, Mursili seems to have instead turned control of Babylonia over to his Kassite allies,
Eu-Gamil:
Of course, the Semitic/Sumerian ex babylonians did not give up Babylonia that easily, and likely retreated to a swampy area in Sealand, from were they could continue to conduct hit and run guerrilla warfare upon the Kassites.
Ea-gamil
Ea-gâmil, the ultimate king of the dynasty, fled to Elam ahead of an invading horde led by Kassite chief Ulam-Buriaš, brother of the king of Babylon Kashtiliash III, who conquered the Sealand, incorporated it into Babylonia and “made himself master of the land.”
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https://preview.redd.it/5btdhx6kjkl51.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=91cae1c72edc789ba6ad061c4089bf58c8106059
Sealand dynasty:
The Kassites were likely able to defeat the Sealanders with the help of their navy, and add "master of Sealand", to the growing number of Hittite titles.
It is likely that the Kassites were the Naval arm of the Hittite empire, and this is why Babylonia was given to the Kassites.
The perfect area for a naval base, given the Port of UR allowing easy access to the Indian ocean, and port of Tyre offering easy access to the Mediterranaen, as well as easy access to the Euphrates and Tigres.
The Hittites likely had other Western naval groups that were in supervision of Troy.
Sealand dynasty
The Sealand Dynasty, (URU.KÙKI[nb 1][1][2]) or the 2nd Dynasty of Babylon (although it was independent of Amorite-ruled Babylon), very speculatively c. 1732–1460 BC (short chronology), is an enigmatic series of kings attested to primarily in laconic references in the king lists A and B, and as contemporaries recorded on the Assyrian Synchronistic king list A.117. The dynasty, which had broken free of the short lived, and by this time crumbling Babylonian Empire, was named for the province in the far south of Mesopotamia, a swampy region bereft of large settlements which gradually expanded southwards with the silting up of the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
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Naval bases
Ramesses III:
Rameeses III's reign ended with the end of the Native egyptian empire.
He was able to win a "battle" against the Sea peoples, but unfortunately, the 200 year war against Sea peoples, took it's toll on Egypt, and Egypt fell to the Hittites Libyan allies.
Ramesses III
He led the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea Peoples", who had caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other empires fell during the Late Bronze Age; however, the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt.[1]
Constant war:
Constant war against Libyans, and Sea peoples, took it's toll.
Tenure of constant war
During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Late Bronze Age collapse, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders (including the so-called Sea Peoples and the Libyans)
Ramesses II:
Hittite land armies began defeating the crumbling Egyptian land armies, as the Egyptians simply could not handle fighting Sea peoples attacking from boats and rivers, Libyans, at the same time as fighting Hittites in pitch battles.
Third Syria campaign
Egypt's sphere of influence was now restricted to Canaan while Syria fell into Hittite hands.
Merneptah:
Merneptah recorded the defeat as being a defeat coming from "Northerners" of all lands.
Campaigns
[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -I, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.
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Merneptah
23rd dynasty:
By the 23rd dynasty, Libyans would assume the throne of Egypt.
Libyans had been one of Egypts longest lasting enemies.
23rd dynasty of egypt
The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIII, alternatively 23rd Dynasty or Dynasty 23) is usually classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period. This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan (Berber) kings, who ruled either as pharaohs or independent kings of parts of Upper Egypt from 880 BC to 720 BC, and pharaohs from 837 BC to 728 BC.
Ukraine:
Now, i would like to go back to the earliest known roots for the Hittite empire.
Ukraine would be a good start, as Ukraine is pretty close to the Caucasus.
Ukraine
Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanized: Ukrayina, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (📷listen); Russian: Украина, tr. Ukraina, IPA: [ʊkrɐˈinə]) is a country in Eastern Europe.[10] It is bordered by Russia to the east and north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south. Ukraine also borders the Crimean Peninsula to its south, which Russia annexed from Ukraine in 2014, though Ukraine still continues to claim the territory.[11] Including the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi),[12] making it the second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia,
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Ukraine
Scoloti:
Now, in around 700 BC there was a tribe/army turned up in the Ukraine named the Scoloti.
This tribe allied themselves to the already existing tribe/army, in this region, named "the Crimmerians".
You have likely heard of the Scoloti.
Another name for them, is Scythians.
The Scythians are a people at the centre of the age of migrations, were tribes begin branching off in their seperate directions across europe, likely at the end of the fall of the Hittite empire.
The migrations, take the exact same root as the previous migrations, only, this time, in the opposite direction.
Scythians
Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region.[10]
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Age of migrations
Scylfings:
Now, according to Norse-mythology, the first Swedish kings arrived in Sweden at the end of the age of Migrations.
Yngling
The Ynglings were a legendary dynasty of kings, supposedly originating from Sweden. It can refer to the clans of the Scylfings (Old Norse Skilfingar), the semi-legendary royal Swedish clan during the Age of Migrations,
Onela:
In fact, they "usurped" already existing Swedish thrones.
Onela
Onela was according to Beowulf a Swedish king, the son of Ongentheow and the brother of Ohthere. He usurped the Swedish throne, but was killed by his nephew Eadgils, who won by hiring foreign assistance.
Cimmerians:
Now Cimmerians pre-dated the Scythians in this region, though they did ally themselves with the Scythians.Scoloti, suggesting they already had some cultural association, though in fact, they were slightly seperate peoples.
Cimmerians
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1000 BC[1] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. While the Cimmerians were often described by contemporaries as culturally "Scythian", they evidently differed ethnically from the Scythians proper, who also displaced and replaced the Cimmerians
Doggerland:
It is to do with the fact that Doggerland once connected britain to France, and therefore Britain was a little more Eurasian in genetics than those from the house of Ynglings, that are pure Aryans.
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Doggerland
War:
The Scotoli would actually later turn on the Cimmerians, and send them in to Germany.
Scythians
the Scythians replaced the Cimmerians as the dominant power on the Pontic Steppe in the 8th century BC.[10
Royal family:
The Cimmerians did not stand a chance against the Scotoli/Scythians, as the Royal family were Scotoli.
Scythians
Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
Meshwesh:
Now, it is likely that the "Meshwesh" referred to by Ramesses III as being one of the many groups which made up the Sea-peoples, the Meshwesh were likely Cimmerians.
Tenure of constant war
internal strife which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea.
Welsh man:
Now, the reason for this, is that Cimmerian translates in to the old Brythonic language as "Welshman".
This theory is accepted now, so much, that most scholars and historians now accept, that the Cimmerians were under over-lordship
Legacy
Early modern historians asserted Cimmerian descent for the Celts or the Germans, arguing from the similarity of Cimmerii to Cimbri or Cymry. The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21] The Cambridge Ancient History classifies the Maeotians as either a people of Cimmerian ancestry or as Caucasian under Iranian overlordship.[22]
Britain:
Does this mean that the Cimmerians were Welsh?
Not exactly.
It means that Brythonic speaking people with origins in Briton were in the middle to near east, fighting wars, during this period, and were likely fighting for the legendary, but most likely, factual, house of Ynglings.
It also means, it is likely not unbelievable in the slightest, that in 900 BC, a man named Brutus turned up on the shores of cornwall in a boat, and became the first King of Britain.
Brutus of Troy:
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Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain. This legend first appears in the Historia Brittonum, an anonymous 9th-century historical compilation to which commentary was added by Nennius, but is best known from the account given by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae.

Brutus
Summary:
It would actually be more unbelievable, that this legend, is not true. Given what we know about contemporary history.
submitted by StevenStevens43 to AhrensburgCulture [link] [comments]


2020.08.30 01:37 andytgerm Watch-Along Guide: Robert Zemeckis

I always feel pretty excited when a March Madness series is about to start. I love when the Blankies Zig and Zag and choose an underdog to get behind. Bobby Z gonna be a long one, of course, but where are you going these days? And won't it be nice to have a constant presence for the next few months? And, most exciting of all, we will get to Talk The Walk 2020. A final note that many of these will likely change as we pass through an extended period of time in streaming rights cycles, I will do my best to keep the list up to date. (And if you run a streaming service, please consider putting expiration dates on your whole catalog to take the guess work out so I don't have to double check every one of these every month, it would be a great service!)

I Wanna Hold Your Hand: Not available digitally. It is pretty readily available on physical media, both on Criterion and previous editions. Check your local library!
Used Cars: Free with ads on TubiTV. Purchase/Rental on Amazon/Apple/GooglePlay, etc.
Romancing the Stone: Purchase/Rental on Amazon/Apple/GooglePlay, etc.
Back to the Future: Coming to Netflix 9/1. Airing on WGN America 8/31 7pm, Syfy 9/6 9pm and 9/7 6:29pm, and E! 9/12 6pm and 9/13 3:30pm. Available for Purchase/Rental on Amazon/Apple/GooglePlay, etc.
Who Framed Roger Rabbit: Streaming on Disney+. Purchase and rental on Amazon/Apple/GooglePlay, etc. Also the Blu is less than $6 on Amazon right now and it's freakin' Roger Rabbit!
Back to the Future Part II: Coming to Netflix 9/1. Airing on WGN America 8/31 at 9:30pm, Syfy 9/7 at 4:02pm and 9pm, E! 9/12 at 8:30pm and 9/13 at 6pm. Purchase/Rental on Amazon/Apple/GooglePlay, etc.
Back to the Future Part III: Coming to Netflix 9/1. Airing on WGN America 9/1 at 12:00am, Syfy 9/7 at 1:30pm and 11:29pm, and E! on 9/12 at 11pm. Purchase/Rental on Amazon/Apple/GooglePlay, etc.
Death Becomes Her: Streaming on HBOMAX/HBO apps. Purchase/Rental in the usual places.
Forrest Gump: Streaming/In Rotation on STARZ. Purchase/Rental in the usual places. Also available on 4K disc.
Contact: Streaming on HBOMAX. Purchase/Rental in the usual places.
What Lies Beneath: Streaming on Showtime through the end of November. Available on library-based Hoopla service.
Cast Away: Streaming on HBOMAX/other HBO services and in rotation on HBO channels. Purchase/Rental on the usual places.
The Polar Express: Purchase and rental on most of the usual places.
Beowulf: Streaming on Showtime through 8/31. Available on HD DVD on physical media, just sayin. Purchase/Rental on most of the usual places.
Disney's A Christmas Carol: Streaming/in rotation on STARZ. Coming to Disney+ November 6th. Purchase/Rental on most of the usual places. 3D Blu Ray only $74 on Amazon (c'mon Griff you know you're gonna).
Flight: On the TNT App with cable login, airs on TNT 9/10 at 12:00am. Purchase/rental on most of the usual places.
The Walk: On the FX NOW app with cable log in, airing on FXX 9/3 at 9:30am, FXM 9/9 at 3pm. Purchase/Rental on most of the usual places. THIS 3D Blu Ray a much more reasonable $20 on Amazon.
Allied: Purchase/Rental on the usual places.
Welcome to Marwen: Streaming on CinemaxGo, in rotation on Cinemax channels. Purchase on most of the usual places. Not rentable until September 1st for some reason?
submitted by andytgerm to blankies [link] [comments]


2020.07.24 22:20 spilver24Jul Scream Se-x Sce-ne

Scream Se-x Sce-ne
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submitted by spilver24Jul to u/spilver24Jul [link] [comments]


2020.07.20 19:06 RadagastAiwendil The Dragons of Middle-earth

There is perhaps no element of fantasy literature that's more ubiquitous, pervasive, or familiar to contemporary readers than dragons. From Harry Potter to Game of Thrones, dragons are at the centre of thousands of stories, and although it would be unfair to state that Tolkien invented dragons as we know them, I believe that without him, they wouldn’t look and act as they do in our collective imaginations. I think it can be argued that Smaug the Golden is both the first dragon of contemporary fantasy, and the last dragon of old Germanic mythology. He is the reason for the dragons that we’re all so well acquainted with.

However, by starting with Smaug, I’m getting a little ahead of myself. Although he is the first dragon Tolkien named in his published works, in the chronology of Arda, he is the final dragon. And there’s a long heritage of monsters that preceded him.

So in the annals of Arda the very first dragon, the father of them all, is the “Great Worm” Glaurung. And Glaurung’s date of birth (or hatching) is unknown. His master Morgoth intentionally kept his existence a secret until he was ready to be unleashed upon the unsuspecting Elves. But, as I guess is quite common with rebellious young beings, Glaurung was impatient, and he emerged from his master’s dungeons two hundred years before Morgoth was ready to unveil him.

However Glaurung's official debut came with the disastrous Battle of Sudden Flame, which broke the military supremacy of the Noldor and their allies. And Glaurung was the reason for all this sudden flame. The Father of Dragons led the largest army of orcs and balrogs that the world had ever seen, and the "Elves and Men withered before him."

But the Battle of Sudden Flame was just a taste of the horror that Glaurung would eventually unleash. Only seventeen years later came the Battle of Unnumbered Tears, and this was arguably the greatest loss ever suffered by the Free Peoples in Middle-earth's history. In this battle, Glaurung once again emerged from Morgoth's fortress, but this time he was not the only one of his kind. Tolkien tells us about Glaurung's brood, which he describes as "many and terrible", and these children of Glaurung caused immense devastation upon the field of battle.

Now within Middle-earth, not all dragons are created equal, and as is always the case with Tolkien, there are a few different types of dragons throughout the Legendarium. But Glaurung and his brood are among some of the most dangerous, for they are all of the class of Urulóki - known more commonly as fire-drakes. So as the name suggests, Glaurung and his brood were all endowed with the ability to breathe dragon fire. And dragon fire is no ordinary thing. In The Lord of the Rings we're told that it's hot enough to melt Rings of Power. The only other place where that could happen is in the fires of Mount Doom.

But anyway, in the Battle of Unnumbered Tears, Glaurung and his brood lay waste to the lands of the Sons of Fëanor, and they "sweep apart" the two factions of Elven allies. And when that was done, Glaurung went after Lord Azaghâl, the chief of the Dwarves of the Blue Mountains. And although Azaghâl's Dwarven army hewed Glaurung and sent him into a rage, they were unable to kill him. And when the battle was over, Azaghâl was just another slain hero, who'd met his end in the fires Glaurung.

And there's something really interesting here, because although in the First Age dragons are portrayed as the destroyers of many mighty Elven armies, and in later Ages they're known as the great enemies of the Dwarves, in Tolkien's entire Legendarium we're not told of a single named dragon who is ever killed by an elf or a dwarf. Every dragon that dies, is slain by a single mortal Man, standing alone in single combat.

And this brings us the the eventual doom of Glaurung. Now I don't want to unnecessarily spoil anything, but just like with all future dragons, Glaurung is slain by a mortal Man. And there's no battle. There are no armies. There is simply Glaurung and the son of Húrin. But before his black sword pierces Glaurung's belly, Tolkien demonstrates some of the other lesser known powers of Glaurung the Golden. Because although the dragon is most famous for his fiery breath, he has another power that proves perhaps even more destructive.

Glaurung is a master of minds. Not unlike Sauron, Glaurung uses deception against his enemies, but this is not the limit of what he can do. More than once in the Legendarium he uses his power to hypnotise his enemies, and he freezes them in place. Which renders them completely helpless against him. But even this is not his greatest gift. At one point in the story, Glaurung comes across a young maiden and he uses some sort of spell to utterly obliterate her mind. He destroys her memories. And when he's finished with her, the maiden is left with no idea who she is, why she's there, or even what her name is. And Glaurung only chooses to release the maiden from her amnesia at the absolute most destructive moment for her. (This is a great story that's covered in the Children of Húrin)

However, eventually Glaurung is slain, and so he becomes the first in a long line of dragons to be killed by Mannish heroes. Over the Ages he would be joined by the "Long-worm" Scatha who was slain by Fram (an ancestor of the Men of Rohan), the Beast of Gondolin who was vanquished by Tuor (the only Man in a city full of Elves), and of course Smaug who is slain not by dwarves or by wizards or by hobbits, but by Bard the Bowman and his Black Arrow. However of all the dragons in Tolkien's Legendarium, there is one who stands out amongst all others. One dragon who was the greatest of his kind, the mightiest of them all, and the ancestor of all future winged dragons. Ancalagon the Black.

So the truth is that we don't know a huge amount about Ancalagon, but we do know that Morgoth bred him to be the greatest dragon that ever lived. And he was unleashed in Morgoth's final hour, during the War of Wrath. Now there is a little bit of debate amongst fans in regards to Ancalagon's size. If you google him you'll probably find an image comparing the sizes of all the dragons in Middle-earth, and Ancalagon will no doubt be outrageously huge. And to be fair, Ancalagon was massive. But he probably wasn't that massive. I mean we know that he could fly, and even in a fantasy setting, the laws of physics do have a limit. Although again to be fair, we are told that when Ancalagon was cast down, his body fell from the sky and broke all three of the tallest mountains in Middle-earth after he landed on top of them. But I would argue this is more due to his power than his size. After all, we're also told that when Gandalf killed the balrog in Lord of the Rings, and cast its body off the peak of Zirakzigil, it broke the mountainside, but this doesn't make the balrog the size of a mountain.

Anyway, regardless of the question of his size, Ancalagon's might is undeniable. For a moment it looked like he might be powerful enough to drive back the combined strength of the Valar, and Tolkien tells us that Ancalagon led the vanguard of "the winged dragons, that had not before been seen; and so sudden and ruinous was the onset of that dreadful fleet that the host of the Valar was driven back, for the coming of the dragons was with great thunder, and lightning, and a tempest of fire."

But, as with all others, even Ancalagon was eventually slain. And just like all others, his doom came at the hand of a single individual. Eärendil the Mariner.

Now referring to Eärendil as a mortal Man is a little bit misleading, because technically he's the son of a mortal Man and an immortal Elf. In fact he is the only pure 50/50 man elf hybrid in the whole Legendarium (except for Galador and Gilmith who I mentioned in the Fun Fact about Half-Elves of Gondor). But for most of his life, Eärendil is counted amongst the race of Men, and just like Fram, Tuor, Bard, and the son of Húrin, he alone takes down Ancalagon, in what must have been one of the most epic battles in Middle-earth's history.

So with Ancalgon dead, the race of dragons seemed to disappear from the world for a very long time. Throughout the entire Second Age there is absolutely no reference to any living dragon of any kind. But they were not all gone. And in the Third Age, dragons returned to once again plague the Free Peoples of the North. But many of these dragons were a bit different.

So we're told by Gandalf in the Lord of the Rings that the seven Dwarven rings were "the foundation of each of the Seven Hoards of the Dwarf-kings of old", and it's highly likely that these treasure hoards were what attracted the dragons of the Grey Mountains in the first place. Gandalf tells us that "the Dragons devoured them, and of the Seven Rings some were consumed in fire." Although how Gandalf could know this is a little questionable.

But regardless of the specifics, we know that in the year 2570 of the Third Age, dragons returned from the "wastes beyond" and thus began the great War of the Dwarves and Dragons. However as I said, not all of these dragons were like the Urulóki of the First Age. Many of these dragons were Cold-drakes known as Foalóki, and Tolkien tells us that they "are cold as in the nature of snakes and serpents, and of them a many having wings go with the uttermost noise and speed."

However, the War of the Dwarves and Dragons is not a happy story. For twenty years the Dwarves fought the dragons, and in that time they held their ground in the Grey Mountains, but ultimately, this was not a war the Dwarves could win. Eventually King Dáin I and his son Frór were killed by a Cold-drake outside their very own doors, and this marked the end of the Dwarves' resistance in the Grey Mountains. King Dáin's eldest son and his heir, Thrór (that same Thrór who becomes the grandfather of Thorin Oakenshield) led many of the Dwarven survivors to Erebor, where they rebuilt the great Dwarven Kingdom under the Mountain. And for two hundred years, the Dwarves of Erebor prospered under King Thrór. However the dragons that killed Thrór's father were not gone forever, and in the year 2770 of the Third Age, Thrór would face a terror far greater than the one that killed his father and brother.

Because of course, 2770 is the year that Smaug the Golden descended from the North "like a hurricane", and sacked Erebor. He killed every guard who came out to challenge him, he destroyed the city of Dale, and for the following 171 years, Smaug slept on his newly acquired pile of gold. Now I reckon we all know the story of Smaug's eventual demise, and I'm not going to explain the entire plot of the Hobbit, but when Bard the Bowman fired that fateful arrow, not only did he kill Smaug, and rescue lake town, and avenge Dale, but he also ended a far greater conflict. He killed the last dragon of the North, and he finally ended the threat that Morgoth had unleashed with Glaurung at the Battle of Sudden Flame, 6517 years earlier.

However there is one last thing to say about Smaug. Because although he is the last dragon of the Legendarium, one could also argue that he also is the last dragon of a far older literary tradition. You see, although I think it's fair to say that Tolkien popularised dragons in the genre of modern fantasy, he did not invent them. And the original tales of dragons and mortal Men (at least in Western European culture) come from the writings of Tolkien's beloved ancestors, the Anglo-Saxons.

So between 1920 and 1926, Tolkien jumped head first into the realm of old English literature by translating the epic tale of Beowulf into modern English. And of course at the end of the tale, the hero Beowulf (spoiler for a poem that's over 1000 years old) dies slaying a giant fire-breathing dragon. Furthermore in the tale of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, which Tolkien translated in 1920 whilst working as his University's youngest professor, Sir Gawain battles fire-breathing wyrms. And of course, perhaps the most famous Anglo-Saxon tale to feature fire-breathing dragons is the Norse-Germanic Völsunga Saga, starring the fire-breathing monster Fafnir and the mortal Man Sigurd. (This is the same Sigurd/Siegfried that Chrsitoph Waltz talks about in Django Unchained, and one of the main characters in Wagner's 'The Ring Cycle'.) Now there are a number of striking similarities between Fafnir and Smaug, as well as between Fafnir and Glaurung. In fact Bilbo's dialogue with Smaug almost perfectly mirrors Sigurd's exchange with Fafnir, and Glaurung's description as a flightless dragon who hoarded gold and breathes poison also mirrors Fafnir perfectly.

So I guess this means that although dragons have been a part of Western imagination for over a thousand years, and although dragons have become one of the most recognisable elements of modern fantasy, it is Tolkien who tied these two strands together, and popularised dragons as we know them today. Not long ago, I was watching a movie with my nephew and he wanted to put on How to Train Your Dragon. And I was immediately struck by the fact that the humans (despite speaking with Sottish accents) all claim they are Vikings. Why is it that even in a 21st Century children's movie we associate dragons with old Norse mythology? It's because of Tolkien. It's because Tolkien created the first dragons of the modern era, by adapting the ancient dragons of Europe's historic past. Think about that next time you see a dragon on TV!

So, thank you all for reading, and if you enjoyed reading this, you may also enjoy watching it. Over the course of lockdown I've been working on a series of YouTube videos about Tolkien's Legendarium. The series is called Tolkien Untangled, and so far I've uploaded 4 episodes explaining the Beginning of Days, 6 episodes telling the full story of Fëanor and the Silmarils, four episodes about the differences between the Lord of the Rings books and movies, and I've started a new series of character studies like this one. Next up is the eagles of Middle-earth! So check out Tolkien Untangled on YouTube if you'd like to learn more.
Thanks again everyone. Much love and stay groovy ❤️
Here's a link for my most recent video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sc2AfUm6pZ4
submitted by RadagastAiwendil to u/RadagastAiwendil [link] [comments]


2020.07.20 19:04 RadagastAiwendil The Dragons of Middle-earth

There is perhaps no element of fantasy literature that's more ubiquitous, pervasive, or familiar to contemporary readers than dragons. From Harry Potter to Game of Thrones, dragons are at the centre of thousands of stories, and although it would be unfair to state that Tolkien invented dragons as we know them, I believe that without him, they wouldn’t look and act as they do in our collective imaginations. I think it can be argued that Smaug the Golden is both the first dragon of contemporary fantasy, and the last dragon of old Germanic mythology. He is the reason for the dragons that we’re all so well acquainted with.

However, by starting with Smaug, I’m getting a little ahead of myself. Although he is the first dragon Tolkien named in his published works, in the chronology of Arda, he is the final dragon. And there’s a long heritage of monsters that preceded him.

So in the annals of Arda the very first dragon, the father of them all, is the “Great Worm” Glaurung. And Glaurung’s date of birth (or hatching) is unknown. His master Morgoth intentionally kept his existence a secret until he was ready to be unleashed upon the unsuspecting Elves. But, as I guess is quite common with rebellious young beings, Glaurung was impatient, and he emerged from his master’s dungeons two hundred years before Morgoth was ready to unveil him.

However Glaurung's official debut came with the disastrous Battle of Sudden Flame, which broke the military supremacy of the Noldor and their allies. And Glaurung was the reason for all this sudden flame. The Father of Dragons led the largest army of orcs and balrogs that the world had ever seen, and the "Elves and Men withered before him."

But the Battle of Sudden Flame was just a taste of the horror that Glaurung would eventually unleash. Only seventeen years later came the Battle of Unnumbered Tears, and this was arguably the greatest loss ever suffered by the Free Peoples in Middle-earth's history. In this battle, Glaurung once again emerged from Morgoth's fortress, but this time he was not the only one of his kind. Tolkien tells us about Glaurung's brood, which he describes as "many and terrible", and these children of Glaurung caused immense devastation upon the field of battle.

Now within Middle-earth, not all dragons are created equal, and as is always the case with Tolkien, there are a few different types of dragons throughout the Legendarium. But Glaurung and his brood are among some of the most dangerous, for they are all of the class of Urulóki - known more commonly as fire-drakes. So as the name suggests, Glaurung and his brood were all endowed with the ability to breathe dragon fire. And dragon fire is no ordinary thing. In The Lord of the Rings we're told that it's hot enough to melt Rings of Power. The only other place where that could happen is in the fires of Mount Doom.

But anyway, in the Battle of Unnumbered Tears, Glaurung and his brood lay waste to the lands of the Sons of Fëanor, and they "sweep apart" the two factions of Elven allies. And when that was done, Glaurung went after Lord Azaghâl, the chief of the Dwarves of the Blue Mountains. And although Azaghâl's Dwarven army hewed Glaurung and sent him into a rage, they were unable to kill him. And when the battle was over, Azaghâl was just another slain hero, who'd met his end in the fires Glaurung.

And there's something really interesting here, because although in the First Age dragons are portrayed as the destroyers of many mighty Elven armies, and in later Ages they're known as the great enemies of the Dwarves, in Tolkien's entire Legendarium we're not told of a single named dragon who is ever killed by an elf or a dwarf. Every dragon that dies, is slain by a single mortal Man, standing alone in single combat.

And this brings us the the eventual doom of Glaurung. Now I don't want to unnecessarily spoil anything, but just like with all future dragons, Glaurung is slain by a mortal Man. And there's no battle. There are no armies. There is simply Glaurung and the son of Húrin. But before his black sword pierces Glaurung's belly, Tolkien demonstrates some of the other lesser known powers of Glaurung the Golden. Because although the dragon is most famous for his fiery breath, he has another power that proves perhaps even more destructive.

Glaurung is a master of minds. Not unlike Sauron, Glaurung uses deception against his enemies, but this is not the limit of what he can do. More than once in the Legendarium he uses his power to hypnotise his enemies, and he freezes them in place. Which renders them completely helpless against him. But even this is not his greatest gift. At one point in the story, Glaurung comes across a young maiden and he uses some sort of spell to utterly obliterate her mind. He destroys her memories. And when he's finished with her, the maiden is left with no idea who she is, why she's there, or even what her name is. And Glaurung only chooses to release the maiden from her amnesia at the absolute most destructive moment for her. (This is a great story that's covered in the Children of Húrin)

However, eventually Glaurung is slain, and so he becomes the first in a long line of dragons to be killed by Mannish heroes. Over the Ages he would be joined by the "Long-worm" Scatha who was slain by Fram (an ancestor of the Men of Rohan), the Beast of Gondolin who was vanquished by Tuor (the only Man in a city full of Elves), and of course Smaug who is slain not by dwarves or by wizards or by hobbits, but by Bard the Bowman and his Black Arrow. However of all the dragons in Tolkien's Legendarium, there is one who stands out amongst all others. One dragon who was the greatest of his kind, the mightiest of them all, and the ancestor of all future winged dragons. Ancalagon the Black.

So the truth is that we don't know a huge amount about Ancalagon, but we do know that Morgoth bred him to be the greatest dragon that ever lived. And he was unleashed in Morgoth's final hour, during the War of Wrath. Now there is a little bit of debate amongst fans in regards to Ancalagon's size. If you google him you'll probably find an image comparing the sizes of all the dragons in Middle-earth, and Ancalagon will no doubt be outrageously huge. And to be fair, Ancalagon was massive. But he probably wasn't that massive. I mean we know that he could fly, and even in a fantasy setting, the laws of physics do have a limit. Although again to be fair, we are told that when Ancalagon was cast down, his body fell from the sky and broke all three of the tallest mountains in Middle-earth after he landed on top of them. But I would argue this is more due to his power than his size. After all, we're also told that when Gandalf killed the balrog in Lord of the Rings, and cast its body off the peak of Zirakzigil, it broke the mountainside, but this doesn't make the balrog the size of a mountain.

Anyway, regardless of the question of his size, Ancalagon's might is undeniable. For a moment it looked like he might be powerful enough to drive back the combined strength of the Valar, and Tolkien tells us that Ancalagon led the vanguard of "the winged dragons, that had not before been seen; and so sudden and ruinous was the onset of that dreadful fleet that the host of the Valar was driven back, for the coming of the dragons was with great thunder, and lightning, and a tempest of fire."

But, as with all others, even Ancalagon was eventually slain. And just like all others, his doom came at the hand of a single individual. Eärendil the Mariner.

Now referring to Eärendil as a mortal Man is a little bit misleading, because technically he's the son of a mortal Man and an immortal Elf. In fact he is the only pure 50/50 man elf hybrid in the whole Legendarium (except for Galador and Gilmith who I mentioned in the Fun Fact about Half-Elves of Gondor). But for most of his life, Eärendil is counted amongst the race of Men, and just like Fram, Tuor, Bard, and the son of Húrin, he alone takes down Ancalagon, in what must have been one of the most epic battles in Middle-earth's history.

So with Ancalgon dead, the race of dragons seemed to disappear from the world for a very long time. Throughout the entire Second Age there is absolutely no reference to any living dragon of any kind. But they were not all gone. And in the Third Age, dragons returned to once again plague the Free Peoples of the North. But many of these dragons were a bit different.

So we're told by Gandalf in the Lord of the Rings that the seven Dwarven rings were "the foundation of each of the Seven Hoards of the Dwarf-kings of old", and it's highly likely that these treasure hoards were what attracted the dragons of the Grey Mountains in the first place. Gandalf tells us that "the Dragons devoured them, and of the Seven Rings some were consumed in fire." Although how Gandalf could know this is a little questionable.

But regardless of the specifics, we know that in the year 2570 of the Third Age, dragons returned from the "wastes beyond" and thus began the great War of the Dwarves and Dragons. However as I said, not all of these dragons were like the Urulóki of the First Age. Many of these dragons were Cold-drakes known as Foalóki, and Tolkien tells us that they "are cold as in the nature of snakes and serpents, and of them a many having wings go with the uttermost noise and speed."

However, the War of the Dwarves and Dragons is not a happy story. For twenty years the Dwarves fought the dragons, and in that time they held their ground in the Grey Mountains, but ultimately, this was not a war the Dwarves could win. Eventually King Dáin I and his son Frór were killed by a Cold-drake outside their very own doors, and this marked the end of the Dwarves' resistance in the Grey Mountains. King Dáin's eldest son and his heir, Thrór (that same Thrór who becomes the grandfather of Thorin Oakenshield) led many of the Dwarven survivors to Erebor, where they rebuilt the great Dwarven Kingdom under the Mountain. And for two hundred years, the Dwarves of Erebor prospered under King Thrór. However the dragons that killed Thrór's father were not gone forever, and in the year 2770 of the Third Age, Thrór would face a terror far greater than the one that killed his father and brother.

Because of course, 2770 is the year that Smaug the Golden descended from the North "like a hurricane", and sacked Erebor. He killed every guard who came out to challenge him, he destroyed the city of Dale, and for the following 171 years, Smaug slept on his newly acquired pile of gold. Now I reckon we all know the story of Smaug's eventual demise, and I'm not going to explain the entire plot of the Hobbit, but when Bard the Bowman fired that fateful arrow, not only did he kill Smaug, and rescue lake town, and avenge Dale, but he also ended a far greater conflict. He killed the last dragon of the North, and he finally ended the threat that Morgoth had unleashed with Glaurung at the Battle of Sudden Flame, 6517 years earlier.

However there is one last thing to say about Smaug. Because although he is the last dragon of the Legendarium, one could also argue that he also is the last dragon of a far older literary tradition. You see, although I think it's fair to say that Tolkien popularised dragons in the genre of modern fantasy, he did not invent them. And the original tales of dragons and mortal Men (at least in Western European culture) come from the writings of Tolkien's beloved ancestors, the Anglo-Saxons.

So between 1920 and 1926, Tolkien jumped head first into the realm of old English literature by translating the epic tale of Beowulf into modern English. And of course at the end of the tale, the hero Beowulf (spoiler for a poem that's over 1000 years old) dies slaying a giant fire-breathing dragon. Furthermore in the tale of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, which Tolkien translated in 1920 whilst working as his University's youngest professor, Sir Gawain battles fire-breathing wyrms. And of course, perhaps the most famous Anglo-Saxon tale to feature fire-breathing dragons is the Norse-Germanic Völsunga Saga, starring the fire-breathing monster Fafnir and the mortal Man Sigurd. (This is the same Sigurd/Siegfried that Chrsitoph Waltz talks about in Django Unchained, and one of the main characters in Wagner's 'The Ring Cycle'.) Now there are a number of striking similarities between Fafnir and Smaug, as well as between Fafnir and Glaurung. In fact Bilbo's dialogue with Smaug almost perfectly mirrors Sigurd's exchange with Fafnir, and Glaurung's description as a flightless dragon who hoarded gold and breathes poison also mirrors Fafnir perfectly.

So I guess this means that although dragons have been a part of Western imagination for over a thousand years, and although dragons have become one of the most recognisable elements of modern fantasy, it is Tolkien who tied these two strands together, and popularised dragons as we know them today. Not long ago, I was watching a movie with my nephew and he wanted to put on How to Train Your Dragon. And I was immediately struck by the fact that the humans (despite speaking with Sottish accents) all claim they are Vikings. Why is it that even in a 21st Century children's movie we associate dragons with old Norse mythology? It's because of Tolkien. It's because Tolkien created the first dragons of the modern era, by adapting the ancient dragons of Europe's historic past. Think about that next time you see a dragon on TV!

So, thank you all for reading, and if you enjoyed reading this, you may also enjoy watching it. Over the course of lockdown I've been working on a series of YouTube videos about Tolkien's Legendarium. The series is called Tolkien Untangled, and so far I've uploaded 4 episodes explaining the Beginning of Days, 6 episodes telling the full story of Fëanor and the Silmarils, four episodes about the differences between the Lord of the Rings books and movies, and I've started a new series of character studies like this one. Next up is the eagles of Middle-earth! So check out Tolkien Untangled on YouTube if you'd like to learn more.
Thanks again everyone. Much love and stay groovy ❤️
Here's a link for my most recent video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sc2AfUm6pZ4
submitted by RadagastAiwendil to lordoftherings [link] [comments]


2020.07.20 19:04 RadagastAiwendil The Dragons of Middle-earth

There is perhaps no element of fantasy literature that's more ubiquitous, pervasive, or familiar to contemporary readers than dragons. From Harry Potter to Game of Thrones, dragons are at the centre of thousands of stories, and although it would be unfair to state that Tolkien invented dragons as we know them, I believe that without him, they wouldn’t look and act as they do in our collective imaginations. I think it can be argued that Smaug the Golden is both the first dragon of contemporary fantasy, and the last dragon of old Germanic mythology. He is the reason for the dragons that we’re all so well acquainted with.

However, by starting with Smaug, I’m getting a little ahead of myself. Although he is the first dragon Tolkien named in his published works, in the chronology of Arda, he is the final dragon. And there’s a long heritage of monsters that preceded him.

So in the annals of Arda the very first dragon, the father of them all, is the “Great Worm” Glaurung. And Glaurung’s date of birth (or hatching) is unknown. His master Morgoth intentionally kept his existence a secret until he was ready to be unleashed upon the unsuspecting Elves. But, as I guess is quite common with rebellious young beings, Glaurung was impatient, and he emerged from his master’s dungeons two hundred years before Morgoth was ready to unveil him.

However Glaurung's official debut came with the disastrous Battle of Sudden Flame, which broke the military supremacy of the Noldor and their allies. And Glaurung was the reason for all this sudden flame. The Father of Dragons led the largest army of orcs and balrogs that the world had ever seen, and the "Elves and Men withered before him."

But the Battle of Sudden Flame was just a taste of the horror that Glaurung would eventually unleash. Only seventeen years later came the Battle of Unnumbered Tears, and this was arguably the greatest loss ever suffered by the Free Peoples in Middle-earth's history. In this battle, Glaurung once again emerged from Morgoth's fortress, but this time he was not the only one of his kind. Tolkien tells us about Glaurung's brood, which he describes as "many and terrible", and these children of Glaurung caused immense devastation upon the field of battle.

Now within Middle-earth, not all dragons are created equal, and as is always the case with Tolkien, there are a few different types of dragons throughout the Legendarium. But Glaurung and his brood are among some of the most dangerous, for they are all of the class of Urulóki - known more commonly as fire-drakes. So as the name suggests, Glaurung and his brood were all endowed with the ability to breathe dragon fire. And dragon fire is no ordinary thing. In The Lord of the Rings we're told that it's hot enough to melt Rings of Power. The only other place where that could happen is in the fires of Mount Doom.

But anyway, in the Battle of Unnumbered Tears, Glaurung and his brood lay waste to the lands of the Sons of Fëanor, and they "sweep apart" the two factions of Elven allies. And when that was done, Glaurung went after Lord Azaghâl, the chief of the Dwarves of the Blue Mountains. And although Azaghâl's Dwarven army hewed Glaurung and sent him into a rage, they were unable to kill him. And when the battle was over, Azaghâl was just another slain hero, who'd met his end in the fires Glaurung.

And there's something really interesting here, because although in the First Age dragons are portrayed as the destroyers of many mighty Elven armies, and in later Ages they're known as the great enemies of the Dwarves, in Tolkien's entire Legendarium we're not told of a single named dragon who is ever killed by an elf or a dwarf. Every dragon that dies, is slain by a single mortal Man, standing alone in single combat.

And this brings us the the eventual doom of Glaurung. Now I don't want to unnecessarily spoil anything, but just like with all future dragons, Glaurung is slain by a mortal Man. And there's no battle. There are no armies. There is simply Glaurung and the son of Húrin. But before his black sword pierces Glaurung's belly, Tolkien demonstrates some of the other lesser known powers of Glaurung the Golden. Because although the dragon is most famous for his fiery breath, he has another power that proves perhaps even more destructive.

Glaurung is a master of minds. Not unlike Sauron, Glaurung uses deception against his enemies, but this is not the limit of what he can do. More than once in the Legendarium he uses his power to hypnotise his enemies, and he freezes them in place. Which renders them completely helpless against him. But even this is not his greatest gift. At one point in the story, Glaurung comes across a young maiden and he uses some sort of spell to utterly obliterate her mind. He destroys her memories. And when he's finished with her, the maiden is left with no idea who she is, why she's there, or even what her name is. And Glaurung only chooses to release the maiden from her amnesia at the absolute most destructive moment for her. (This is a great story that's covered in the Children of Húrin)

However, eventually Glaurung is slain, and so he becomes the first in a long line of dragons to be killed by Mannish heroes. Over the Ages he would be joined by the "Long-worm" Scatha who was slain by Fram (an ancestor of the Men of Rohan), the Beast of Gondolin who was vanquished by Tuor (the only Man in a city full of Elves), and of course Smaug who is slain not by dwarves or by wizards or by hobbits, but by Bard the Bowman and his Black Arrow. However of all the dragons in Tolkien's Legendarium, there is one who stands out amongst all others. One dragon who was the greatest of his kind, the mightiest of them all, and the ancestor of all future winged dragons. Ancalagon the Black.

So the truth is that we don't know a huge amount about Ancalagon, but we do know that Morgoth bred him to be the greatest dragon that ever lived. And he was unleashed in Morgoth's final hour, during the War of Wrath. Now there is a little bit of debate amongst fans in regards to Ancalagon's size. If you google him you'll probably find an image comparing the sizes of all the dragons in Middle-earth, and Ancalagon will no doubt be outrageously huge. And to be fair, Ancalagon was massive. But he probably wasn't that massive. I mean we know that he could fly, and even in a fantasy setting, the laws of physics do have a limit. Although again to be fair, we are told that when Ancalagon was cast down, his body fell from the sky and broke all three of the tallest mountains in Middle-earth after he landed on top of them. But I would argue this is more due to his power than his size. After all, we're also told that when Gandalf killed the balrog in Lord of the Rings, and cast its body off the peak of Zirakzigil, it broke the mountainside, but this doesn't make the balrog the size of a mountain.

Anyway, regardless of the question of his size, Ancalagon's might is undeniable. For a moment it looked like he might be powerful enough to drive back the combined strength of the Valar, and Tolkien tells us that Ancalagon led the vanguard of "the winged dragons, that had not before been seen; and so sudden and ruinous was the onset of that dreadful fleet that the host of the Valar was driven back, for the coming of the dragons was with great thunder, and lightning, and a tempest of fire."

But, as with all others, even Ancalagon was eventually slain. And just like all others, his doom came at the hand of a single individual. Eärendil the Mariner.

Now referring to Eärendil as a mortal Man is a little bit misleading, because technically he's the son of a mortal Man and an immortal Elf. In fact he is the only pure 50/50 man elf hybrid in the whole Legendarium (except for Galador and Gilmith who I mentioned in the Fun Fact about Half-Elves of Gondor). But for most of his life, Eärendil is counted amongst the race of Men, and just like Fram, Tuor, Bard, and the son of Húrin, he alone takes down Ancalagon, in what must have been one of the most epic battles in Middle-earth's history.

So with Ancalgon dead, the race of dragons seemed to disappear from the world for a very long time. Throughout the entire Second Age there is absolutely no reference to any living dragon of any kind. But they were not all gone. And in the Third Age, dragons returned to once again plague the Free Peoples of the North. But many of these dragons were a bit different.

So we're told by Gandalf in the Lord of the Rings that the seven Dwarven rings were "the foundation of each of the Seven Hoards of the Dwarf-kings of old", and it's highly likely that these treasure hoards were what attracted the dragons of the Grey Mountains in the first place. Gandalf tells us that "the Dragons devoured them, and of the Seven Rings some were consumed in fire." Although how Gandalf could know this is a little questionable.

But regardless of the specifics, we know that in the year 2570 of the Third Age, dragons returned from the "wastes beyond" and thus began the great War of the Dwarves and Dragons. However as I said, not all of these dragons were like the Urulóki of the First Age. Many of these dragons were Cold-drakes known as Foalóki, and Tolkien tells us that they "are cold as in the nature of snakes and serpents, and of them a many having wings go with the uttermost noise and speed."

However, the War of the Dwarves and Dragons is not a happy story. For twenty years the Dwarves fought the dragons, and in that time they held their ground in the Grey Mountains, but ultimately, this was not a war the Dwarves could win. Eventually King Dáin I and his son Frór were killed by a Cold-drake outside their very own doors, and this marked the end of the Dwarves' resistance in the Grey Mountains. King Dáin's eldest son and his heir, Thrór (that same Thrór who becomes the grandfather of Thorin Oakenshield) led many of the Dwarven survivors to Erebor, where they rebuilt the great Dwarven Kingdom under the Mountain. And for two hundred years, the Dwarves of Erebor prospered under King Thrór. However the dragons that killed Thrór's father were not gone forever, and in the year 2770 of the Third Age, Thrór would face a terror far greater than the one that killed his father and brother.

Because of course, 2770 is the year that Smaug the Golden descended from the North "like a hurricane", and sacked Erebor. He killed every guard who came out to challenge him, he destroyed the city of Dale, and for the following 171 years, Smaug slept on his newly acquired pile of gold. Now I reckon we all know the story of Smaug's eventual demise, and I'm not going to explain the entire plot of the Hobbit, but when Bard the Bowman fired that fateful arrow, not only did he kill Smaug, and rescue lake town, and avenge Dale, but he also ended a far greater conflict. He killed the last dragon of the North, and he finally ended the threat that Morgoth had unleashed with Glaurung at the Battle of Sudden Flame, 6517 years earlier.

However there is one last thing to say about Smaug. Because although he is the last dragon of the Legendarium, one could also argue that he also is the last dragon of a far older literary tradition. You see, although I think it's fair to say that Tolkien popularised dragons in the genre of modern fantasy, he did not invent them. And the original tales of dragons and mortal Men (at least in Western European culture) come from the writings of Tolkien's beloved ancestors, the Anglo-Saxons.

So between 1920 and 1926, Tolkien jumped head first into the realm of old English literature by translating the epic tale of Beowulf into modern English. And of course at the end of the tale, the hero Beowulf (spoiler for a poem that's over 1000 years old) dies slaying a giant fire-breathing dragon. Furthermore in the tale of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, which Tolkien translated in 1920 whilst working as his University's youngest professor, Sir Gawain battles fire-breathing wyrms. And of course, perhaps the most famous Anglo-Saxon tale to feature fire-breathing dragons is the Norse-Germanic Völsunga Saga, starring the fire-breathing monster Fafnir and the mortal Man Sigurd. (This is the same Sigurd/Siegfried that Chrsitoph Waltz talks about in Django Unchained, and one of the main characters in Wagner's 'The Ring Cycle'.) Now there are a number of striking similarities between Fafnir and Smaug, as well as between Fafnir and Glaurung. In fact Bilbo's dialogue with Smaug almost perfectly mirrors Sigurd's exchange with Fafnir, and Glaurung's description as a flightless dragon who hoarded gold and breathes poison also mirrors Fafnir perfectly.

So I guess this means that although dragons have been a part of Western imagination for over a thousand years, and although dragons have become one of the most recognisable elements of modern fantasy, it is Tolkien who tied these two strands together, and popularised dragons as we know them today. Not long ago, I was watching a movie with my nephew and he wanted to put on How to Train Your Dragon. And I was immediately struck by the fact that the humans (despite speaking with Sottish accents) all claim they are Vikings. Why is it that even in a 21st Century children's movie we associate dragons with old Norse mythology? It's because of Tolkien. It's because Tolkien created the first dragons of the modern era, by adapting the ancient dragons of Europe's historic past. Think about that next time you see a dragon on TV!

So, thank you all for reading, and if you enjoyed reading this, you may also enjoy watching it. Over the course of lockdown I've been working on a series of YouTube videos about Tolkien's Legendarium. The series is called Tolkien Untangled, and so far I've uploaded 4 episodes explaining the Beginning of Days, 6 episodes telling the full story of Fëanor and the Silmarils, four episodes about the differences between the Lord of the Rings books and movies, and I've started a new series of character studies like this one. Next up is the eagles of Middle-earth! So check out Tolkien Untangled on YouTube if you'd like to learn more.
Thanks again everyone. Much love and stay groovy ❤️
Here's a link for my most recent video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sc2AfUm6pZ4
submitted by RadagastAiwendil to lotr [link] [comments]


2020.07.15 19:14 moon-worshiper TLK is depicting the beginnings of literacy in Europe (after the mostly forgotten Romans and Greeks) around 900 AD, with a standardized Olde AEnglish alphabet, leading to Traveling Minstrels or Bards

The Bards became a class on their own after bankers, merchants, farmers, smiths, knights, the lower class poets. They would travel from place to place, with a sleeping roll and their lute, a short dagger for protection, and search for anyplace to stay overnight, from open camps to hayfields to barns. Their main places were the small villages that had a tavern and inn, exchanging an evening of entertainment for food and a room. The Bards were usually well educated and carried blank parchment, ink and feather pens, to write their sagas. The Beowulf transcript may be an example, which is dated between 700 AD and 1000 AD: https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/beowulf
Bard, a poet, especially one who writes impassioned, lyrical, or epic verse. Bards were originally Celtic composers of eulogy and satire; the word came to mean more generally a tribal poet-singer gifted in composing and reciting verses on heroes and their deeds. As early as the 1st century AD, the Latin author Lucan referred to bards as the national poets or minstrels of Gaul and Britain. In Gaul the institution gradually disappeared, whereas in Ireland and Wales it survived. The Irish bard through chanting preserved a tradition of poetic eulogy. In Wales, where the word bardd has always been used for poet, the bardic order was codified into distinct grades in the 10th century. Despite a decline of the order toward the end of the European Middle Ages, the Welsh tradition has persisted and is celebrated in the annual eisteddfod, a national assembly of poets and musicians.
submitted by moon-worshiper to TheLastKingdom [link] [comments]


2020.07.05 15:37 luckyduckling8989 What does it mean to dream of a specific date? And specific date-like details?

Unfortunately, I can’t recall the month or day of the date (there were one’s and two’s in the dates, but that could mean anything: January, February, November, December...) However I dreamt I was doing homework in class and I asked my classmate what year it was to write in the upper corner. ‘04 (I was a freshman in HS at the time).
I was unprepared, doing the homework literally 2 minutes before class. And I stole the book, Beowulf from the class library bc I had forgotten to bring it myself. However, I’m pretty sure I read that book in middle school.
Regardless... I’ve had school anxiety dreams before. But these details were so specific on the timing of it all. What does it mean?
submitted by luckyduckling8989 to Dreams [link] [comments]


2020.07.04 17:30 arak2556 Seasons of the Gunslinger

https://www.ityatale.com/stories/seasons-of-the-gunslinger
Genesis 1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.
Sun-baked, sun fried, sunburned, sun destroyed. Just another goddamn day in the sun. Jesus, will this sun ever go down?
Finally the sun dips below the horizon and that ball of fire gives me the rest I’ve been hoping for. I give a tug on the reins and my horse stops.
My left hand removes my hat and my right works through my sweaty hair. A deep breath of the already cooling air fills my lungs. For the first time in many hours I really look at the country I’m passing through and appreciate its beauty. The rocks, covered with colorful lichen, poke out through the bluish sagebrush. Low juniper trees outline the washes and draws that work through this mesa like veins.
Ahead, I spot my campsite for the night. A low ridge about a mile off to the south. Ought to be some wood there and the orientation of the ridge should block the wind if it kicks up. I'll also have a great view of my back trail. Not that I am expecting pursuit but I will have plenty of good light for an hour or more anyway.
There is a cluster of large sandstone boulders that will shield the fire and a small patch of cheatgrass for my horse. My gun belt and hat are set to the side to take full advantage of the cooling air. The horse gets a rub down and then a small fire heats a large cup of water. I drop a chunk of hard tack and another of jerky in the boiling water. I eat this poor man’s soup as I watch nightfall cover my back trail. When full night arrives, I douse the fire and rinse the cup.
Time to lean against a rock and listen to the night. It is finally cool and my eyes drift closed.
I am not jerked awake. I’m just suddenly aware that I am awake. My eyes open and I see the waning gibbous moon splashing it’s silver light over the open plain. I am aware of my horse and can hear it breathing as it dozes.
I’m aware of something else. I am no longer alone.
My hand snakes out for the Walker Colt in its holster and the large pistol swings up. It settles on the dark apparition that sits against a boulder, some ten feet away.
The shadowy figure doesn't flinch. It does not react at all.
I wait. I have found it wise that when you’ve done what you need to do, waiting is the best thing to do next. It is also the hardest thing to do.
The silence stretches. I notice that it is now truly silent. A normal night, with its bugs and beasties, hums with life and quiet sounds. Now there is a true deep silence that is so rare in the natural world.
It seems odd that I can’t see the face of the figure. In the light of the moon I can see most things. This shape seems to swallow all light.
I wait.
The man-shaped thing waits.
“Alright, stranger, what brings you to my camp?” I guess I lose this waiting game but I’m still the one with the pistol.
Smoothly, the figure leans forward. Just for a moment, the hatless figure is just blackness and burning eyes. Then, as if it is moving out of a shadow that does not exist, I see fine, delicate features. Those eyes, they burn above an angelic smile for just a breath and then they resolve to a perfect black. The smile holds and I confirm my suspicion that this is a man.
“You called and I am here.” The smile remains as he speaks.
“I believe you're mistaken, friend. I’ve been actively avoiding folk for quite some time now. Can’t think of man nor beast I’d call to me.” My voice stays as steady as I would like, mostly.
“I have been called a beast, The Beast actually.” The smile seems to stretch even further, although it doesn’t seem possible. He chuckles a bit then and leans back. “And I suppose I am often mistaken for a man.”
“Listen Mister, I wouldn’t say I like killing but I have done it before. Please convince me not to shoot you just so I can go back to sleep.” I try to make sense of what the hell is going one but make no headway. I have never seen a man so comfortable with a steady hand holding a gun on him.
“Sean, let’s dispense with the banter and get down to business. I’ve had just about every threat imaginable leveled at me and yet… here I am.” My guest spreads his hands and executes a seated bow.
The name he calls me surprises me. I can’t remember the last time I was called by that name. Must have been in the old country, I am sure. Even on my Army papers I had put Michael instead. That name was easier to get rid of than my accent, but even that faded. It faded just like everything else, ground down in that war.
“Do you and I know each other, mister? ‘Cause I can’t seem to place you.” I am feeling the weight of my pistol so I lower my hand to a more comfortable position. “I haven’t heard that name in seven years or more.”
“Right, right, but I know your name, Not just the name you used in New York City and in the ‘Fightin’ 69th’. Not even the one you used back in Ireland. I know your true name. The one my Father called you when he breathed life into you.” The man tugs at his chin and looks up.”Shall I tell you some of my names or have you guessed yet?”
My mind scrambles and kicks like an armadillo digging his burrow. My heartbeats get faster and I feel something welling up inside me. A sick dizzy feeling that makes me shiver involuntarily. The gun sinks lower and I think…”Diabhal.” My mind slips to Irish in my surprise. “You’re Old Scratch aren’t you.”
The Devil’s smile seems to stretch again this time I know for sure no human could smile so wide.
“I’m not even thirty yet. Is it my time already?” My heart sinks, not sure if I want the answer.
“Oh, no. Sean Michael O’Flannery.” the way he says my name each syllable sounds like the strike of a bell reverberating in the back of my eyes. “Not your time. I’ll tell you a secret. Your choices change the time of your death all the time. Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour.” He begins to laugh now. A deep melodious laugh that gets just a little shrill before it cuts off.
“So what is it that I can do for you then?” I say as I put the big Walker back in it’s worn holster.
“Oh young man we’ll get to that. We’ll definitely get to that. But first things at the beginning, end things at the end and my things all along the way. Let’s talk about your call and your desires first. We can save the other bits and pieces for dessert.” His hands begin to dance around each other in a washing motion.
“I didn't call…” I start to protest. He holds up his hand and shakes his head.
“Skip the silly and frankly, childish word games. We both know you wanted me to come to make you into something else. To make you unstoppable, a force of nature to bring justice and settle old wrongs. I really thought you would call me during the war. But you held so tightly to my Father then.” He sighs and shakes his head in such an over dramatic way it is almost comical. “Now you accept reality. Even though He is omniscient and omnipresent He rarely gets involved. But I am always here.”
I feel the old familiar rush. The anger and battle lust that has made me who I am and kept me alive. “He NEVER comes! Never answers!” The venom in my voice is fueled by all those memories bubbling suddenly to the fore. My breathing is fast and my hands clench.
The man who claims to be a fallen angel just smiles and nods approvingly. “Yes, Sean. You see, that is why I came. That right there. I am eternal and I have hated for so long. It is always refreshing to see it burn anew.” A pipe seems to appear from nowhere in his left hand and a lit match in his right. He leans back and puffs. “Eternal but busy, Sean. Do you want to hear my offer or not?”
"I'll hear your words and I will keep in mind you are the Prince of Lies as you go." I say.
"The Prince of so much more than lies but I accept your sceptical condition." He puffs again at the pipe and exhales a cloud of smoke so dense it seems solid. “Sean my lad, I have seen you. Seen your heart laid bare. I have heard you. I have heard that voice inside you that speaks only the truth."
"Cease your own word games and speak plainly." I say. "I'm tired and you have said you are busy. Let's get on with this so I can deny you and go back to sleep."
His finger tips touch beneath his chin with the pipe clenched in his teeth, his shark smile stretching again. "Ah, the sweet taste of hubris." He leans in and his eyebrows arch. "Sean, my boy; faith and fear both require you to believe in something that doesn't exist. I see you have put aside your faith. My offer is to take away your fear. Fear of death, fear of hurt, fear of failure all gone. I will make you immune to disease and plague. I will make you immune to damage from accident or violence. I wish to make you the Achilles of your day. An indomitable warrior who fears nothing on the earth. I will do this, not for your soul, but for your service. My Father has cast me down for my grievous offenses and I have long ago accepted that. My goal is not to add souls to my empire of pain and torture. I will earn the forgiveness of my Father by assisting the development of his creation. The term of service will be one hundred years. You will take my directions during this time and at the completion of the term you will go to your just reward."
He leans back and his smile turns into a smirk. He curls his leg to his chest. He rests elbow on knee and cheek on hand. Waiting.
My mind races. The possibilities and opportunities fill me and I ran through the things I might do. I have wished for this exact power over death so many times. I am suddenly shocked to realize I am instantly considering this. A deal with the devil.
Cautiously, I ask, "100 years of invulnerability in exchange for me doing things for you? I cannot be your slave for a century. There is no advantage for me."
He laughs and slaps his leg "Oh, no not a slave. Just when I say something needs done or someone needs taken care of, you do it."
"Too open ended." I scoff.
"How about once a month." He counters quickly.
"Four times, once per season."I fire back.
"Done." He says.
"I get to choose whether to do it or not." I push a little.
His face goes stern and cold. "Impossible." He says flatly.
"I had to try.' I grin.
His smile returns and his hand comes toward me in one graceful flowing motion,"Seal it." He says and the words are in my head as well as in my ears.
I stare at that hand. I think of all the tales about making a deal with the devil. Have I heard of one that didn't go badly in the end? Somewhere in my memory is a story of a Saint that renounced God and turned to the underworld for power. Later he was able to have an archbishop or cardinal burn his contract. Of course I know well the story of the fool Faustus who sold his soul and wasted the magic he was given.
"I become your assassin for a century. Four times per year, one for each season. In return I keep my soul but become immune to all damage, all the time?" I attempt to state the deal as I understand it.
"Yes." He says " I have things that need done and I judge that you can do what I need. I have tried other contracts when I had different aims but now…" he shrugs."Your soul is yours to do with what you choose. It is much more...entertaining that way. Besides I have others that must be collected. So they can begin their torment and before they do too much harm."
"How long do I have to make this decision." I ask.
"Until I leave. So a few minutes." His smile is huge.
Slowly I extend my hand. Thinking about what this means for me and for the things I have fought for in my life. As I take his hand in a firm grip, I can't help smiling. The smile feels huge and I am sure it stretches impossibly far across my face.
***
Second Timothy 3:1-5 “But understand this, that in the last days there will come times of difficulty.
Chilled to the bone, icy as a whore’s heart...cold as ice. Just another cold empty night. Jesus is the goddamn sun ever going to come up?
Finally the sun begins to lighten the sky and the temperature begins to rise. The truck rolls to a halt in the gravel. I brush the stray pieces of windshield off my lap.
I sit alone. It’s always my preference I suppose, but today it seems particularly fitting. I’m expecting company but I will enjoy this peace while I can. I reckon I’ll come out of this deal just about the way I went in. The warm sunshine filters through the trees and the morning breeze stirs my hair.
The road I have been driving down has ended. I know I lost my pursuers some hours ago but I just kept on driving. A feeling of being on the edge of a cliff comes over me. It is the date I have thought of a million times.
I don’t bother getting out. I just lean back into the upholstered seat and stare out the ragged hole that used to hold the windshield. My pack sits on the seat next to me and I reach and pull it over. I dig in one of the side pouches and dump out a can of Hoppe’s Number 9 gun cleaning solvent and several boxes of special order pistol ammunition before I find the flask.
I have no food in the bag. I don’t need to eat. Haven’t felt hunger pangs in a century now. I still like to eat a well prepared dish, but I have learned to keep it small. I eat only rarely and when I really want to because I also don’t have to shit if I don’t eat. I can’t describe the pleasure of not having to indulge bodily functions.
I am a living stereotype when it comes to whiskey and being Irish though. The burn is familiar and I take half the contents in one drink, knowing that my “condition” will knock the buzz down almost immediately.
I don’t need to sleep anymore either but I still enjoy it quite a bit. The hum in my ears from the whiskey and the sun beam hitting my face makes me drowsy. My head lolls back on the head rest, and my eyes drift closed.
I am not jerked awake. I am simply aware of a presence where a moment ago there was thin air. Several low sounds penetrate my drowsy sleep. I haven’t been afraid for a century. I’m just curious what is happening next to me.
I look to my right and see the old bastard rifling through my pack. It appears that he is laying my worldly possessions out on the dash of the pickup. The sun is fully up now and I guess that it is probably seven thirty.
“Live hard and die young. Isn’t that the saying you used? For your plans after the war?”asks the eternal being I have come to call Samael.
“I look at you and I see what happens when you only do only the first and not the second.”He speaks a bit absently and then looks up at me.
I feel that same feeling I always get when I lock gazes with an angel. It is a strange mixture of trepidation and excitement. It is the fear of a being that is orders of magnitude more powerful than I am; combined with the sure and certain knowledge that I am in some unknowable way, a superior creation of God.
My human mind has struggled for many decades to understand the complicated and convoluted history of the choirs of angels and their presence in the many theologies of the world. Never with much success. The truth as I understand it, about the twisted blending of all religions that represents the actual situation, is that there exists in this ancient and expanding universe more than we can understand. It may be more than we should understand. Suffice it to say all the religions have it right and all of them have it wrong.
Samael looks at me and says.
”So we come full round and find ourselves in the same place. It does remind me of when I sacrificed myself to myself. Oh Sean, that was a long nine days I tell you now, but the knowledge gained was worth it all.”
He closes his right eye tightly and looks at me as if I am meant to understand his cryptic crap.
I look at him quizzically. I have seen and done so many things. Read and heard so many tales. It is difficult for my mortal mind to hold and then retrieve it all. Slowly it occurs to me. I get a mental picture of Samael as One-Eyed Odin from Norse legend. He is said to have hung himself from the magical tree, Yggdrasil, and stabbed himself with his own spear. This sacrifice of himself to himself was made to show his willingness to sacrifice everything for knowledge. The knowledge he sought was the secret of magical runes. He hung that way staring into the Well of Urd for nine days until he understood all the magic.
“An Odin reference, Samael? Are you telling me that was you as well?”
I roll my eyes and shrug.
“I guess I pictured you as more of a Loki.”
Samael takes a cartridge for my pistol, a Linebaugh .500 and makes it roll across the knuckles of his right hand. It seems to disappear from one side and reappear on the other. I know this is only the dexterity of his fingers and no magic trick. I have learned this trick and many others by watching him.”Oh no. That was Asmodeus. If you knew him better you would understand.”
I don’t bother continuing this discussion. It isn’t what either of us want to talk about.
I wait a moment and I say, “Today was 400.”
His grin disappears. He looks at me seriously and says, “Yes it is. Is it true? Does time heal all wounds?”
“100 years and four seasons in each. I have often wondered why you didn’t tell me that those years would not be consecutive. Why you never mentioned that I would be dragged willy nilly into all of history and prehistory on your errands”
My voice has the implacable push of my thoughts behind it and I ignore his questions.
“I suppose that being a timeless being, with the ability to travel in the fourth dimension you know as time, as easily as the other three; it didn’t seem all that important.”
He shrugs and looks out toward the mountains to the east of us.
“I probably would have said yes anyway. Then, I certainly would. I am not sure about now. The things I know and have seen… I don’t know.”
The weight of my heavy soul seems to crush the breath from me. I voice the thought that has been running through my mind since I lost my pursuers some time after midnight.
“Samael, the lines keep running through my head.
I will show you something different. Your shadow at morning striding behind you, Or your shadow at evening rising to meet you; I will show you fear in a handful of dust. I was never sure what T.S. Elliot was talking about in The Wastelands poem but I think I know now.”
Suddenly Samael turns to me with an unholy intensity.
“So what now? Is that what you want to ask me? The answer is you are the one who knows that answer my boy. I spoke the truth to you when I said you can go your way and await your just reward. My Father’s gift of free will” He flips his hand in a dismissive motion.
I feel angry at this for some reason.
“So you just release me like a worn knife that cannot take another sharpening? Take the gifts away and walk off?” My voice begins to rise, “You had me put a lot of credits into your account with your Father, Yahweh! Did I commit 400 sins or 400 services? I don’t even know anymore. The lines are so blurred. I can’t see where I have been, let alone where I am going! My shadow before and behind is invisible and I fear this unknown. Goddamnit! I have seen fear in a handful of dust! I am an old man and I don’t know what comes next!”
I slump down in the seat again, the words leaving my mouth as a whisper.
“I don’t even know what I have left.”
Samael turns on the seat. He places his hand on my shoulder. He looks at me with eyes that are both patrician and paternal.
“I will help you if you want me to, Sean.”
I can’t help it. My eyes mist and my throat gets tight. I won’t cry. But Lord I want to.
“Sean, you have done me a great service, there is no doubt. Look at me, tell me what you want? Let’s use your poem as a metaphor then. Are you Sybil of Cumae that Elliot stole from an older source for his opening lines? Given the gift of long life but now trapped in a cage as a curiosity. Do you feel trapped in your long lifespan?
Sibylla ti theleis; respondebat illa: apothanein thelo...Do you want to die, Sean?”
His look is tender, his voice is soft, and the Latin from my favorite poem washes over me like a warm bath in winter.
“Perhaps you are the fisherman from the end of the poem? Will you be like him and use fragments to shore up the ruin? Will you carry on. Push on into the glorious land where Hercules and Beowulf await you? Will you stay with me and cross into legend as a hero?”
The energy flows in his words. Never increasing in volume but with the power of certainty, alluring and solid, infused throughout.
“I will do either for you, with an equal amount of love. For the first, just lay your head back and rest, forever. For the second, take my hand as you did once before. This time with no conditions on your immortality. Be your own man, bound to me only by, dare I say it, friendship.”
His left hand stays comfortingly on my shoulder as a symbol of the release that awaits in death. His right hand extends toward me, the same way I saw it all those years ago in the San Juan mountains of Colorado.
I think for a long time.
Slowly and deliberately I...
THE END.
submitted by arak2556 to ITYATALE [link] [comments]


2020.06.24 14:04 BuckGB Hades - The Blood Price Update Available

The Blood Price is the latest early access content update for Supergiant Games’ roguelite action-RPG Hades. The update introduces more of everything, expands many of the game’s systems and adds numerous new story events. With this update behind them, the developers now set their sights on the full release that should be coming later this year.
You can check out the complete patch notes for The Blood Price over here and watch the official trailer below:
A quick overview of the new stuff:
About the Update
Hades becomes a bigger, more varied experience than ever with new content across the board! - The Stygian Boatman, Charon, is finally unmasked, and has new inventory in stock in his shops &Wells (plus a surprise or two)! - Discover three new Legendary Weapon Aspects, including the Shield's Aspect of Beowulf and the Bow's Aspect of Rama! - Get new Boons from each Olympian, including Duo Boons for every pairing -- plus, new Daedalus Hammer upgrades for each weapon! - Take on new foes, mini-bosses, even a hidden boss! Beware the Wretched Sneak, Doomstone, Dracon, and other dangers. - Experience new story events with almost every character, with more than 3,500 new voice lines added for this update!
This update also features a huge amount of new-and-improved art and audio, not to mention a totally revamped code base that should make the game run even faster and smoother for many players. You'll be able to get closer than ever to the game's big cast of characters are you gear up for the true ending, coming in our v1.0 Launch.
[...]
Dev Roadmap Update - June 2020
You can always see our latest Development Roadmap right in the game client. We wanted to share highlights from our latest update here.
In our third and latest Major Update this year, we made big, important under-the-hood changes to our code base, improving performance and multiplatform capability. We also added new content pretty much across the board.
What's Next:
Our next big step is to exit Early Access for the v1.0 Launch of Hades, coming later this year! It will include the true ending of the story, plus many additional finishing touches.
Release Date & Platforms:
As of this writing, we don't yet have a more-specific date for our v1.0 Launch, other than 'later this year'. We also can't yet confirm any additional platforms. Thank you for your patience, and check here or social media for the latest news.
High Priority Tasks:
These are the big-ticket items we have to take care of before we can exit Early Access for our v1.0 Launch: - Game Ending: Though we wish to keep the details a secret, we're continuing to work on content for the game's true ending. - Polishing &Content Completion: We have some other additional content pieces in the works, plus final fixes and improvements. - Multiplatform Development: Each platform we support requires special care and attention, both in features and optimizations. - Localization: We're working with professional and community translators to ensure the game is fully translated for our v1.0 Launch.
Hades has now been in development for about three years. The very first decision we made on the project was to make it an Early Access game, which we could build in partnership with our community. We also wanted to prove that Early Access development could be compatible with our approach to making games. We couldn't be happier with how the experiment has gone. Your feedback has made this game so much better than we could have on our own, so keep telling us what you think. Onward to our v1.0 Launch!
submitted by BuckGB to GameBanshee [link] [comments]


2020.06.09 20:24 TheLogicalErudite Non-fantasy Books for helping you DM better

DMing can be difficult and creating an immersive and interesting world on the fly as your characters murder their way through it can be even moreso. I'm going to list a series of books that have helped my campaigns. None of these will be fantasy, and I encourage you break out of "your genre" if you are someone who focuses in on a single genre of literature. Explore others as it will open your mind to new ideas and concepts. For fantasy recommendations, I recommend /fantasy - or just ask and I may respond in a comment. I love the genre and have nothing against it, but if you're here you most likely already read fantasy and that's not really the point here. Obviously reading fantasy is a great source of ideas, characters, and inspiration.
First, some qualifications. I've been running games for 10 + years, for a multitude of groups in a variety of systems, including 2 custom homemade systems I developed personally. I have a homebrewed setting I've run 4 campaigns in over 6 years now. While DnD is some of what I play, it is not my primary focus, and this advice is applicable to any game you are running however the bulk of my reference for how it will be useful will be in fantasy-setting. I am a voracious reader, reading 10+ books a month some months. I made this list for my friend who asked for recommendations of non-fantasy books to help him grow as a DM, so I figured I would share it here too.
First set: Historical fiction / History I really recommend any sort of history as useful, as a DM you are creating NPCs and people of history, and a lot of times creating actual literal history. Reading about history can give you real world inspiration; and what is more immersive or feels more real than something that actually happened? Depending on your focus for what you want, you may want to lean into genres. This genre is huge so I'm only listing a few I think are good, but really finding historical fiction / history is a great step towards taking real life events and applying them into your game in some way. Whether political, battle
Religious / Mythological So, I focus on the main pillars of religion, that are easily identifiable (And therefore relatable). Greek (Roman, same thing), Norse (Viking), Pagan, and Judeo-Christian. I've used eastern religions like Taoism, but never to any success or great extent (Probably due to it to being unrecognized in America where I live). Learning as much as you can about these 4 can get you pretty much anywhere, and often for my own purposes I am mixing and matching features from 2-3 of them.
Philosophy Reading philosophy will help you develop every skill, but most of what I am going to discuss will be related to developing quandaries / problems for your players to explore. Also stealing wholesale a proposed morality / government system from these philosophers and taking them to an extreme is a great way to develop a villain (or a society) that feels unique / different and the players can engage with. I'm going to miss a lot here, since there is so much.
Politics / Game Theory I really recommend learning some basic game theory no matter what, it's a great way to put interesting character dilemma into the game and understand how NPCs would respond.
Crime / Thriller Not going to make specific recommendations, but books are just dnd sessions. Crime and thriller often have strong story plots that drive characters forward. Sound familiar?
Agatha Christie, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Raymond Chandler, James Patterson, Michael Connelly. All are great authors of the genre.
True crime is a great way to get motivations as well. Real serial killers, psychopaths, and criminals are all just real life villains. You could make a BBEG based off them, or even just a lowly assassin for a single session.
Horror Horror is a great place as it's going to expand your ability to describe events, and maybe inspire a few monsters of your own. Stephen King is the top of the pile here, but Horror has so many places to dive into. Lovecraft, Anne Rice, Dean Koontz as well.
Science Fiction My personal favorite genre. Before anyone comments, Science fiction is not fantasy. There is a bleed over and many books could be labeled eitheor, but for purposes here Fantasy is traditional LOTR style medieval or renaissance fantasy with strange races. I mention Sci-Fi because often the ideas are rooted in modern science (Which is always interesting to include a physics system your players understand but the characters don't, necessarily). Taking these ideas of how the world works, or how the universe works, and twisting them into fantasy is a fantastic way to keep concepts fresh. Again, too much to delve into here but I'll list some authors that do a fantastic job of worldbuilding cultures and ideas.
Reading in other genres can really expand and diversify your NPCs, political catalogue, and world building. Using real life philosophy and taking a villain from a crime thriller's personality may make for a very memorable BBEG. I hope this guide helps you and maybe inspires you to expand your game a little further!
If you've read something you think belongs here feel free to put them in the comments, I read all the time and love recommendations. Also if I misspelled any name or title I apologize.
submitted by TheLogicalErudite to DMAcademy [link] [comments]


2020.05.28 22:01 Abstract__Nonsense Dating the palatalization of /g/ to /y/.

So my question is motivated by a linguistic dating for Beowulf. In the first line of the poem; we GarDena in geardagum, I’ve heard in most recitations, and in the pronunciation guide in Chickerings dual language edition, to pronounce the g in gear as /y/ here and in other such cases. As this interferes with alliteration in the important first line of the poem, this would seem to me to be evidence that composition took place at least before this /g/ -> /y/ change was complete. So this leads to my question. Do we have a timeframe for when exactly this shift was taking place over? I understand you’ve got all the caveats of regional dialects and other issues with linguistic dating in poetry in general, but I’m curious to hear any thoughts any of you might have. Thanks!
submitted by Abstract__Nonsense to OldEnglish [link] [comments]


2020.05.25 19:28 Nifty_Biscut32 An observation of the atlesian military from the perspective of an armchair general

IMPORTANT: I WILL BE UPDATING THISS LATER TO ADRESS ROBOTS BETTER, AS WELL AS INFANTRY EQUIPMENT AND TO CORRECT MISTAKES I HAD MADE
An observation of the atlesian military from the perspective of an armchair general
UPDATED POST: https://www.reddit.com/RWBY/comments/gqm15an_observation_of_the_atlesian_military_from_the/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x
By u/Nifty_Biscut32
===============================================
Part 1
Introduction and information
Hello, and welcome to my observation of the atlesian military. First things first, this is all opinions based, keep that in mind while reading. Second, I will be making several assumptions about the world of remnant. When I do, I will put an asterisk afterwards (EX: there are many different calibers of bullets*). Third, I will assume that people in the world of remnant have progressed similarly to the real world in terms of technology, i.e. spears to swords to muskets etc. With all of that out of the way, I believe it is time to start.

Part 2
Organization of a military force
When you look at the atlesian military, you see two main things. Those would be Airships and Infantry. It is my opinion, and the opinion of others* that atlas prides itself on its airships, as they are the biggest, most advanced weapons in the atlesian armory. It’s infantry, on the other hand, is seen more as the undesirable parts of the military, the parts that nobody wants to be a part of*. Now here I will congratulate atlas on one thing, that being the owning of a professional army. With a standing, professional army, you can put them under much more rigorous and intense training than a huntsman/huntress, not to mention they will always be ready and not out on missions. But just because atlas has a professional military, doesn't mean that it's a good one. The atlesian military lacks several things that could greatly improve their efficiency as well as their safety and strength. Mainly, I see this as a lack of any armoured vehicles and a lack of any heavy, or even self propelled artillery. Simply by taking a civilian car, adding some sort of thick metal, and strapping a machine gun to it, they would greatly improve the general strength of their ground forces. The other thing is their small aircraft fleet (Fighters, transports, etc), which seems to be extremely lacking for a kingdom who prides themselves on their military.

Part 3
Air and land doctrines
At first glance, you would look at the atlesian military and assume that they prioritize supporting a ground force with aircraft, but upon further inspection that is not the case. They appear to use their huge air fleet to escort smaller, light transport crafts. This would be useful for transporting large amounts of cargo, such as soldiers, weapons, etc. Now that fits in with what I believe to be their land doctrine, which is human wave tactics. These tactics were primarily used by the Soviet Union in WWII against the German Reich, where it was effective as a way to stall the blitzkrieg. But when used as an offense, especially against another kingdom, this will cause huge casualty rates, for a real life example of this, look at the battle of bunker hill. To top this off, atlas does not have a single designated bomber, fighter, CAS, or anything like that. All of atlas’ small aircraft are either transport, or transport with a few guns attached. Quite pitiful for a military so proud of their air power.

Part 4
Improvement on air warfare
Through a majority of this paper, I have been criticizing the atlesian military, now i'm going to give my opinion on how to improve their air wings. First, more specialty aircraft. Only having converted transports is a horrible idea. I would recommend the specialty creation of CAS, such as dive bombers, attack planes. I would also recommend the creation of interceptor aircraft, as fast moving and hard hitting planes could double as scouting planes if need be. In terms of bombers, high altitude is pretty much out of the question, so I would recommend light bombers loaded with many small 50-100 lbs bombs. Although even I am skeptical about bombers vs grimm, as most grimm fight at close quarters.

Part 5
Improvement on ground warfare
As stated before, the atlas military seems to use wave tactics against grimm, sending hordes of soldiers forward to face the grimm head on. This is one of, if not the absolute WORST ideas imaginable. You are sending groups of soldiers with armour weak to stabbing and slashing against monsters twice their size. One beowulf could kill about 5 or 6 atlesian soldiers with one swipe. Going back to real life I believe that the german military from 1936-1945 would be best against facing grimm. Specifically their armoured divisions and machine gun centric squad tactics. A tank could easily outgun, out pace and out perform any infantry. Even an early tank could easily destroy a beowulf, or even an ursa. In terms of weapons for the common enlisted, I believe a weapon similar to the BAR would be most effective. An automatic, high power rifle would most likely be able to penetrate the armour of most grimm*. Especially if you put 5 of them together, as well as with a browning 50 cal MG. In general, if the atlesian military were to focus on large, armoured vehicles, they would be a much more effective fighting force. In conclusion, more armoured vehicles, more powerful guns, and less human wave tactics.

Part 6
Conclusion and final remarks
Overall, the atlesian military is extremely lacking for the strongest military in the world. It should have a more diverse military and way, way more small aircraft. And in terms of navy, I can forgive them for not having one as I imagine most of their budget goes to making sure their airships are up to date. I also recommend using the robots as forward scouts, as they don't need to return physically. Thank you for reading, I greatly appreciate it.
Best regards
- u/Nifty_Biscut32
submitted by Nifty_Biscut32 to RWBY [link] [comments]


2020.05.13 22:03 curlycattails My husband's cousin dated a guy named Grendell (like the demon from Beowulf)

My husband's cousin dated a guy named Grendell (like the demon from Beowulf) submitted by curlycattails to NameNerdCirclejerk [link] [comments]


2020.05.07 11:19 yuri53122 [Discussion Thread] S01E12 - Heroes and Demons

http://memory-alpha.wikia.com/wiki/Heroes_and_Demons_(episode)
Original Air Date: April 24th, 1995
When several crew members disappear inside Harry Kim's "Beowulf" holodeck program, the holographic Doctor is the only one who can rescue them.
A few talking points for everyone:
  • What do you think of these Doctor centered episodes?
  • Whats your favorite quote from the episode?
  • Any general comments about this episode?
Episode Links
submitted by yuri53122 to voyager [link] [comments]


2020.05.06 02:05 ecstaticandinsatiate [OT] Teaching Tuesday: Narrative Perspective

Happy Tuesday!

Hey friends, welcome back to Teaching Tuesday :) It’s me, your friendly neighborhood Static. I write here sometimes.
This is a relatively new format for Teaching Tuesday, as I like to write one big ol’ post and then present an optional workshop element at the end. If that sounds like you kind of thing, stick around, give this a thoughtful read, and then give the workshop a try! :) The goal with the workshop portion is to intentionally implement some of the concepts we’re talking about, sort of mimicking the experience of in-person creative writing classes.
If you want to review any of my earlier Teaching Tuesday posts, you can find them below:
This week, I wanted to draw our attention to this question of narrative perspective. Let’s dig into it!

Terms to Know

Breaking the fourth wall: The narrative and/or characters directly addressing the reader
Metanarrative: How relatively self-aware the narrative is of its own construction. Books and stories that are particularly “meta” draw attention to their own artificiality to make a statement about how the form (how the story is told) shapes the content (what story is told).
Narrative: This is how you tell the story, the fabric of the thing
Perspective: The character(s) telling the story and which pronouns (first = I/me, second = you, third = he/she/it) the author uses to frame that/those character(s) in the story

What is Narrative Perspective?

Simply put: narrative perspective is the point of view in which you choose to tell your story. It can be rooted in a character within the narrative, a character observing the narrative without being directly involved, or an omniscient, removed narrator. Rather like a painter with an infinite color palette, there is no upward limit to what you can do with narrative perspective. There are very few can’ts here, although certain styles are certainly harder to pull off than others.
Narrative perspective does not have to singularly follow the main character. For example, Sherlock Holmes is told entirely from Watson’s perspective (observer narration). The Book Thief by Markus Zusak is really first person narrated by the character Death, but the third person observation narrative of the other characters is framed in that first person. Western literature also has a long history of the narratobard retelling an epic story from outside the fabric of that story, as seen in the Iliad, the Odyssey, Paradise Lost, etc.
If you’re sitting here blinking and wondering what the hell half the words I just said meant, don’t worry. We’re gonna unpack it. ;)

First Person Narration

This one is pretty straightforward! The story is told through the eyes of a character (or multiple characters, if you choose to switch perspectives like The Bartimaeus Sequence by Jonathon Stroud does). It employs first person pronouns (I, me, etc.) to root the narrator’s perspective.
Some (but certainly not all) variations of first person:
Epistolary narrative: This narrative device tells the story through letters, either from a single character or written back and forth between multiple characters. Famous examples include C.S. Lewis’s The Screwtape Letters and Bram Stoker’s Dracula, among many, many others.
First person retrospective: Retrospective narration is a character intentionally sitting down and recounting past events to the audience (or to an audience within the story, if the novel does not break the fourth wall). In some ways, retrospective narration can threaten tension as it completely removes the question of whether or not a character will survive the novel’s events.
A Farewell to Arms by Ernest Hemingway is a wonderful example of this approach. The novel begins:
In the late summer of that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across a river and the plain to the mountains.
Because of the very particular narrative framing of “that year”, we know that this story must be retrospective first person.
Unreliable narrator: First person does give the unique opportunity to have a narrator who lies to the audience. Dangerous Girls by Abigail Haas is a strong example of this, but clarifying too much would spoil the ending. ;)
An unreliable narrator can also be a narrator with a perception that doesn’t always match reality. This is seen in Ken Kesey’s One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest as well as Mark Haddon’s The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-Time. In both cases, the narrative characters are experiencing abnormal psychology: Chief, the Cuckoo’s Nest narrator, has some sort of psychosis and Christopher, who narrates The Curious Incident, has autism. These characters’ plights are not at all comparable, but the way that their abnormal psychology impacts how they tell their stories is an example of narrators who are unintentionally unreliable.

Second Person Narration

Some people will tell you not to touch this perspective with a ten-foot pole. But we’re here to dismantle the gatekeepers ;)
Second person narration tells the story as if speaking to either the audience or a character within the story in directed, second person pronouns (you). The first things most people think of when they imagine second person are those old Choose Your Own Adventure stories.
Making the audience a character: Andy Weir (the dude who wrote The Martian) has a famous short story called “The Egg” that executes this wonderfully. Here, you can’t quite distinguish if the “you” is meant to refer to you as the reader or the everyman of the character — and that’s what makes the narrative effective for this particular story. By interlinking the audience with the character in the metanarrative, the story makes itself a universal statement, rather than being limited to a single person/circumstance.
Referring to a character within the story: Second person narratives can also instead be written to a character within the story. The Mapmaker’s War by Ronlyn Domingue is my favorite example of this. It’s a fantasy memoihistory told through a totally fictitious narrative tradition, where the main character’s autobiography is told in the second person. Domingue opens the novel with a fictional translator’s note that establishes our metanarrative so we can understand to whom the “you” refers:
In remarkable condition despite its age, the handwritten manuscript is not only one of the earliest known autobiographies but also one of the first attributed to a woman. The author’s rhetorical structure defies the conventions of any period; she addresses herself throughout and appears to be her own audience.
Which is then cemented by the novel’s opening paragraph:
This will be the map of your heart, old woman. You are forgetful of the everyday. misplaced cup, missing clasp Yet, you recall the long-ago with morning-after clarity. These stories you have told yourself before. Write them now. At last, tell the truth.
If anyone tells you that second person is off-limits, shove this novel in their face ;)

Third Person Narration

The third person narrator is arguably the most common, as it provides the most narrative flexibility. As in, it’s easiest to switch from character to character, showing different aspects of the story and building off the dramatic irony of one character’s thoughts/storyline vs another’s. Here, all characters (except for potential fourth-wall breaks toward the audience, which use second person “you” pronouns) employ third person pronouns (he/she/it).
Limited: This is what we call close third person. In this narrative approach, the style and tone of the third person narration takes on the narrative character’s voice (as seen in first person), even though the narration is still in third. This is my personal favorite way to write, as you have narrative playing double-duty by moving the scene along while characterizing the third person narrator. You can have multiple characters as perspective characters using this style, who switch off scene-to-scene.
Notably, third person limited DOES NOT switch between narrative characters in the middle of the scene. That is a hallmark of either third person omniscient or stream-of-consciousness narration, both of which we’ll get to shortly.
It’s famous and wildly popular. You’ll find it in award-winning literary novels like Disgrace by J.M. Coetzee and (also award-winning) popular fiction like Game of Thrones and Harry Potter.
Cinematic: This is the mid-point between limited and omniscient third person narrators. It’s the playing ground of authors like Ernest Hemingway, Raymond Carver, and even Cormac McCarthy, on occasion. Here, we can see everything the characters are saying and doing but we don’t get their direct thoughts, nor is the narration stylized to that character like you see in third limited. However, unlike omniscient, this perspective is still grounded in a single primary narrator for that given scene. Hemingway’s short story “Hills Like White Elephants” (link to a Google docs PDF) is a masterful example which relies on implication and subtext to communicate the underlying character drama.
Omniscient: This particular narrative style can feel outdated because it’s a hallmark of classic literary authors like Charles Dickens or Henry Miller. However, some modern novels, like Celeste Ng’s Little Fires Everywhere still employ it with striking dramatic effect. In omniscient third person, there is an unnamed narrator (usually not directly identified, as it’s usually the author themselves) constructing the story. As the name implies, this narrator knows and sees all and is thus able to dip in and out of characters’ heads as needed for the story.

Narrative styles not limited to a particular POV

Some devices can be used across first, second, and third person perspectives.
Framing Story: Now this one is FUN. With a framing story narrative approach, you can have a story within a story. There are loads of ways to go about this, in both classic and contemporary literature. In Beowulf, we get a story within a story when we hear the saga of an ancient war that mirrors the then-modern crisis of the Danes. Shakespeare uses this device frequently in plays like A Midsummer Night’s Dream, where characters within the world of the play are putting on their own play ;)
But the coolest example that comes to mind for me, modernly, is House of Leaves by Mark Z. Danielewski. It’s an experimental novel that presents itself like a stack of nesting dolls: a story within a story within a story. The narrative levels are as follows:
If you can’t tell, I love that book ;) It’s also fascinating because the novel combines third person (the secondary layer) and first person (the tertiary layer) perspectives seamlessly into a single story.
Stream of consciousness: This narrative device tells us the story exactly as the main character is perceiving it in that moment, as all the narrative action is filtered through their thoughts. Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf is arguably the most famous example of this being executed beautifully in the third person. The narrative acts like a camera following a single day in the lives of two very different members of post-WWI London society, the upper-class Mrs. Dalloway and the traumatized war veteran Septimus Smith. Woolf uses the narrative to follow visual aspects of the scene (e.g. both characters observing a company’s sky-writing advertisement) to pan a single, continuous shot from one character’s extremely close third person perspective to the other.
On the Road by Jack Kerouac and The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger are examples of first person stream-of-consciousness, which is quite a lot more common than third person.

Using Narrative Like a Movie Camera

One of my creative writing professors analogized narrative perspective for me in this way, and it’s really helped my sense of how to shape and direct my narrative.
Think of your story as a movie. You’re the director, and the narrative perspective you choose to use is your camera. Where do you want to place this camera in relation to the main character? Are we seeing through their eyes, just over their shoulder, or from a removed, neutral position? How does that choice impact how you tell the story?

Narrative Perspective In Relation to the Audience

Many writers overlook a very vital question when choosing their narrative framework: what is the narrator’s relationship to the audience? Who are they writing the story to/for?
In general, it’s important to decide for yourself how you want to define that meta-awareness of the audience. In epistolary narration, for example, the letter could be literally written to only the audience (as seen in some portions of A Series of Unfortunate Events), or the letter could be written to another character within the story (as seen in the opening of Frankenstein).
This is a spectrum more delicate than simply choosing whether or not to break the fourth wall. It hinges on the question of is the narrator aware they are narrating a story? If they are, how does that awareness impact their word choice and framing? E.g. an intentionally unreliable first person narrator has to have very high meta-awareness of their own narration, because they must be aware they are telling a story in order to purposefully lie.

When You Establish a Pattern, Stick With It

This is perhaps the most important takeaway with narrative perspective.
Third person omniscient is the only narrative viewpoint we’ve discussed today that readily ping-pongs from one character’s head to the other in the middle of a scene—and even then it must follow its own rules. Usually, in omniscient third, switching character perspectives must be signaled by a new paragraph.
But generally speaking, when you are writing a particular character’s narrative viewpoint, stay with them. Be mindful of details that break that perspective. Take the opening prologue of Game of Thrones for example, as I’m sure many of you have read it. There, we follow three Night’s Watchmen who are hunting a whitewalker in the woods. However, we are rooted in Will’s perspective. Note how Martin uses seems and could see to indicate that, what Will gleans from the other characters’ perspectives, only derives from external, observable details:
Ser Waymar Royce glanced at the sky with disinterest. “It does that every day about this time. Are you unmanned by the dark, Gared?” Will could see the tightness around Gared’s mouth, the barely suppressed anger in his eyes under the thick black hood of his cloak. Gared had spent forty years in the Night’s Watch, man and boy, and he was not accustomed to being made light of. Yet it was more than that. Under the wounded pride, Will could sense something else in the older man. You could taste it; a nervous tension that came perilous close to fear.
This is how you can include the thoughts and perspectives of other characters without breaking the rules of your chosen viewpoint.
...I think that’s about it from me. That was a pretty long one! I hope it was helpful, though. :)

Workshop

For this week, I want you to practice rewriting a given micro-scene from each of the three primary options (first, second, and third person). The goal here is to practice
1) different narrative voices
2) different levels of meta-awareness of the audience
3) staying consistent in that given narrative perspective
Workshop Prompt: Rewrite this scenelet three times: in third person, in second person, and in first person. You may use any variation of these that we discussed, except for omniscient third, as the prompt is already in that narrative ;)
Additional requirements:
You could bang all these out in just one of your rewritten scenelets! Or you can choose to dedicate each one to one particular aspect. The freedom and choice is yours.
The scenelet to rewrite:
Eli and Robyn walked hand-in-hand down to the lake. Eli loved it: the light glistening off the water, the feeling of Robyn's fingers in his. He squeezed her hand and looked down at her. "Heck of a place for a first date, isn't it?" Robyn tried to hide her grimace. While Eli was marveling at the golden light gleaming on the water, she couldn't stop squinting and cursing herself internally for leaving her sunglasses in his car. And trying to think if there was a socially polite way to tell someone they have unnaturally sweaty hands. "It's great," she lied.
You don't have to follow my exact dialogue/framing, as long as the same scene/character information is conveyed. However, each individual scenelet has to be 100 words or fewer. You can't go light on one narrative to have more words for the other. The goal here is to really hone in on narrative framing, rather than writing a self-contained story. Makes sense?
If you want to be included in next week's workshop post and get feedback from me, please give critique to the best of your ability to at least one other workshop writer.
As always, thanks for reading this MONSTER of a post. If you have any thoughts, questions, or feedback, I'd love to hear it down below :)
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2020.05.06 00:33 RJ-Hamster The Gift of Friendship

The Gift of Friendship
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Joseph Loconte 18 hours ago
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Editor’s note: C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien were two of the most prolific writers of faith and fiction in the 20th century. They were also great friends, and Tolkien was a guiding force in Lewis coming to faith in Christ. Both men also served as soldiers in the First World War, survived the trenches, and remarkably used the experience of that conflict to ignite their Christian imagination. Had there been no Great War, there would have been no Hobbit, no Lord of the Rings, no Narnia, and perhaps no conversion to Christianity by C.S. Lewis.
Enjoy this excerpt from Joseph Loconte’s powerful book A Hobbit, A Wardrobe, and a Great War, as he explores how the conflict these two men faced helped forge their friendship and the themes of their writing.
* * *
It is no accident, of course, that Tolkien called the first book of his trilogy The Fellowship of the Ring. Part of the immense attraction of the story is watching a contentious assemblage of hobbits, dwarves, and elves put away their differences and fight alongside one another against each new threat and danger. They begin their quest as reluctant allies, suspicious and even distrustful. Before it is complete—and after facing many terrors and setbacks—they are transformed into a fellowship of the noblest kind.
At the start of their journey, Elrond advises the Company that each may continue only as far as he chooses; none are under obligation to help the Ring-bearer all the way to Mount Doom. Gimli is quick to respond: “Faithless is he that says farewell when the road darkens.” When Frodo arrives at Crickhollow, before setting out into the Old Forest, he is determined to leave on his own; he does not want to expose his companions to the perils that lie ahead. But Merry, Pippin, and Sam are wise to his plans and confront him before he can slip away. They insist on coming with him. Frodo, deeply moved, nevertheless protests. “But it does not seem that I can trust anyone.” Merry is unflappable:
“It all depends on what you want. You can trust us to stick to you through thick and thin—to the bitter end. And you can trust us to keep any secret of yours—closer than you keep it yourself. But you cannot trust us to let you face trouble alone, and go off without a word. We are your friends, Frodo. Anyway, there it is. We know most of what Gandalf has told you. We know a good deal about the Ring. We are horribly afraid—but we are coming with you; or following you like hounds.”1
As vital as the Fellowship of the Ring is to Tolkien’s story, the bond of friendship between Sam Gamgee and Frodo Baggins is one of the great triumphs of the work, inspired, as we have seen, by the rugged service of the batmen and soldiers in the trenches along the front. Like no other, Sam is the friend who would “jump down a dragon’s throat” to save Frodo, “if he did not trip over his own feet.”2 Tolkien once called Sam “this jewel among the hobbits.”3
Sam’s loyalty is tested from beginning to end, from the decision to leave the Shire to the final approach to Mordor. “It is going to be very dangerous, Sam. It is already dangerous,” warns Frodo. “Most likely neither of us will come back.” Sam doesn’t flinch: “If you don’t come back, sir, then I shan’t, that’s certain. ‘Don’t you leave him!’ they said to me. ‘Leave him!’ I said. ‘I never mean to. I am going with him, if he climbs to the Moon; and if any of those Black Riders try to stop him, they’ll have Sam Gamgee to reckon with.’ ”4
When Frodo and Sam are at the threshold of Mount Doom, near the very end of their quest, they find themselves nearly without strength to carry on. For Frodo there was “no taste of food, no feel of water, no sound of wind, no memory of tree or grass or flower.” The desolation of the landscape, the black skies, the noxious fumes, the ash and slag and burned stone, and the dark slopes of the Mountain towering over them are almost overwhelming. They stagger toward their goal. Frodo, weakened by the great burden of carrying the Ring, begins to crawl on his hands.
Sam looked at him and wept in his heart, but no tears came to his dry and stinging eyes. “I said I’d carry him, if it broke my back,” he muttered, “and I will!” “Come, Mr. Frodo!” he cried. “I can’t carry it for you, but I can carry you and it as well. So up you get! Come on, Mr. Frodo dear! Sam will give you a ride. Just tell him where to go, and he’ll go.”5
It is a good bet that only men who knew friendships of this kind—who experienced them on the field of combat—could write passages of such compassion, grit, and courage. After the war, Tolkien and Lewis sought to recapture something like the camaraderie that sustained them during the crisis years of 1914–1918. At Oxford they launched the Inklings, the group of friends and fellow scholars who met weekly—Tuesday mornings at the Eagle and Child pub over beer and Thursday evenings in Lewis’s college rooms over various drinks—to discuss their works.6
For sixteen years these men gathered to read, recite, argue, and laugh together. They met faithfully, even during the darkest days of the Second World War. As Tolkien put it in a letter dated September 23, 1944: “The Inklings have already agreed that their victory celebration, if they are spared to have one, will be to take a whole inn in the country for at least a week, and spend it entirely in beer and talk, without any reference to a clock!”7 Lewis read aloud many of his most important works during these gatherings. “What I owe them is incalculable,” he acknowledged. “Is any pleasure on earth as great as a circle of Christian friends by a good fire?”8
During the course of four decades, Tolkien and Lewis became devoted to each other’s success. Tolkien, through long talks and late evenings, played a crucial role in Lewis’s conversion to Christianity. He helped Lewis find a publisher for his first novel, and was a major force in securing his appointment to the Chair of English at Magdalene College, Cambridge, in 1954, after Oxford denied him a professorship.
At the same time, the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings could have had no greater advocate for his imaginative works. Lewis even nominated Tolkien for the Nobel Prize in Literature. “C. S. Lewis is a very old friend and colleague of mine, and indeed I owe to his encouragement the fact that in spite of obstacles (including the 1939 war!) I persevered and eventually finished The Lord of the Rings,” Tolkien wrote. “He heard all of it, bit by bit, read aloud.”9
When Lewis learned that The Lord of the Rings had been accepted for publication, he wrote to Tolkien to describe his “sheer pleasure of looking forward to having the book to read and re-read.” And then he added a most remarkable perspective on the importance of the book to both their lives: “But a lot of other things come in. So much of your whole life, so much of our joint life, so much of the war, so much that seemed to be slipping away quite spurlos [without trace] into the past, is now, in a sort made permanent.”10
Such was the quality of their friendship: As with no one else, Tolkien dared to expose one of the great passions of his life, the construction of his epic trilogy, to the critical eyes of his friend and colleague. Lewis, for his part, became wholly invested in the project. Perhaps only Lewis, a soldier like Tolkien in the Great War, could recognize how his story “made permanent” their shared experience of the suffering and heartache of the war.11 Against the temper of their times, these authors dared to reclaim some of the older beliefs and virtues. Their common Christian faith had much to do with this, but perhaps no more so than their mutual love of mythic and romantic literature. As Lewis described it, they were “both soaked” in Homer, Beowulf, Norse mythology, medieval romance, and George MacDonald’s fairy tales.12 The result was a bond of loyalty and comradeship that transformed both their lives. “Friendship makes prosperity more shining,” wrote Cicero, “and lessens adversity by dividing and sharing it.”
Their experience reminds us that great friendship is a gift born of adversity: it is made possible by the common struggle against the world’s darkness. “Most gracious host, it was said to me by Elrond Halfelven that I should find friendship upon the way, secret and unlooked for,” Frodo tells Faramir. “Certainly I have looked for no such friendship as you have shown. To have found it turns evil to great good.”13
Though their friendship experienced periods of frustration and strain, it persevered to the end. “This feels like an axe-blow near the roots,” Tolkien wrote after Lewis’s death in November 1963. “We owed each a great debt to the other, and that tie, with the deep affection that it begot, remained.”14 Given the contemporary infatuation with “virtual” relationships, Tolkien and Lewis’s achievement not only remains but continues to grow in stature. Like few other writers over the past century, they show us what friendship can look like when it reaches for a high purpose and is watered by the streams of sacrifice, loyalty, and love.
  1. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, 105.
  2. Ibid., 104.
  3. Carpenter, ed., The Letters, 88.
  4. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, 87.
  5. Ibid., 940.
  6. Members of the Inklings included Lewis and his brother Warren, Tolkien, Charles Williams, Owen Barfield, and Hugo Dyson.
  7. Carpenter, ed., The Letters, 94.
  8. Hooper, ed., Collected Letters, Vol. 2, 501.
  9. Carpenter, ed., The Letters, 303.
  10. Hooper, ed., Collected Letters, Vol. 3, 249–250.
  11. In his letter to Tolkien, dated November 13, 1952, Lewis does not explicitly refer to the First World War in his mention of “the war” as among the things that Tolkien’s work had helped to make permanent. But it seems unlikely that he would have the Second World War in mind, which had come to an end seven years earlier.
  12. Hooper, ed., Collected Letters, Vol. 3, 1458.
  13. Tolkien, The Lord of the Rings, 694. Italics are mine.
  14. Carpenter, ed., The Letters, 341.
Excerpted with permission from A Hobbit, A Wardrobe, and a Great War by Joseph Loconte, copyright Joseph Loconte.
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Your Turn
Though we’ve not all been in literal battle, men often form their strongest friendships with those who they strain, work and fight alongside. C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien are prime examples of this. What friends have you made through challenging circumstances? What task could you undertake with other men that will draw you closer together as you strive toward shared goals?
submitted by RJ-Hamster to Devotions [link] [comments]


DATING my BESTFRIEND for 24 HOURS - YouTube MY HERO ACADEMIA SPEED DATING IN VRCHAT! - Deku's Mom ... Beowulf [Full Audiobook] YouTube GOING ON A DATE WITH TODOROKI'S SISTER IN VRCHAT! (VRChat ... This Weeaboo Dating App Is Embarrassing... - YouTube SMASH OR PASS - Subtle Asian Dating - YouTube I Try Getting A Date In A Fedora - YouTube DEKU GOES ON A DATE WITH BAKUGO'S SISTER IN VRCHAT ...

Dating of Beowulf - Medieval Histories

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